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The putative attachment protein of the avian pneumovirus that causes turkey rhinotracheitis is, by analogy with mammalian pneumoviruses, expected to be the major antigenic determinant. We report the nucleotide sequence of the attachment (G) protein genes of five different continental European isolates and compare them with the previously published sequence(More)
Ferrets are widely used to study human influenza virus infection. Their airway physiology and cell receptor distribution makes them ideal for the analysis of pathogenesis and virus transmission, and for testing the efficacy of anti-influenza interventions and vaccines. The 2009 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) induces mild to moderate respiratory(More)
A model has been presented for retrograde transport of certain toxins and viruses from the cell surface to the ER that suggests an obligatory interaction with a glycolipid receptor at the cell surface. Here we review studies on the ER trafficking cholera toxin, Shiga and Shiga-like toxins, Pseudomonas exotoxin A and ricin, and compare the retrograde routes(More)
We demonstrate that multiple promoters and alternate splicing regulate expression of the human CRH receptor type 2 (CRHR2) gene. We show that flanking regions to the first exons drive promoter activity in both endogenously and nonendogenously expressing cell lines. Putative promoter elements have been identified that are conserved between species, including(More)
CRH exerts its actions via activation of specific G protein-coupled receptors, which exist in two types, CRH-R1 and CRH-R2, and arise from different genes with multiple spliced variants. RT-PCR amplification of CRH receptor sequences from human myometrium and fetal membranes yielded cDNAs that encode a novel CRH-R type 1 spliced variant. This variant(More)
The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of three genes of turkey rhinotracheitis virus (TRTV) together with the nucleotide sequences of the relevant intergenic regions were determined. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of the genes shows significant identity (42%) to that of the 22K protein of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The TRTV(More)
Analysis of ciliary function for assessment of patients suspected of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and for research studies of respiratory and ependymal cilia requires assessment of both ciliary beat pattern and beat frequency. While direct measurement of beat frequency from high-speed video recordings is the most accurate and reproducible technique it(More)
In 2016, the order Mononegavirales was emended through the addition of two new families (Mymonaviridae and Sunviridae), the elevation of the paramyxoviral subfamily Pneumovirinae to family status (Pneumoviridae), the addition of five free-floating genera (Anphevirus, Arlivirus, Chengtivirus, Crustavirus, and Wastrivirus), and several other changes at the(More)
We have shown earlier that a single dose of cloned defective interfering (DI) influenza A virus strongly protects mice from disease following a lethal challenge with different subtypes of influenza A virus. These animals suffered no clinical disease but experienced a subclinical infection which rendered them immune to reinfection with the same challenge(More)