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Dyslexia is one of the most prevalent childhood cognitive disorders, affecting approximately 5% of school-age children. We have recently identified a risk haplotype associated with dyslexia on chromosome 6p22.2 which spans the TTRAP gene and portions of THEM2 and KIAA0319. Here we show that in the presence of the risk haplotype, the expression of the(More)
We identified two novel mouse mutants with abnormal head-shaking behavior and neural tube defects during the course of independent ENU mutagenesis experiments. The heterozygous and homozygous mutants exhibit defects in the orientation of sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti, indicating a defect in planar cell polarity. The homozygous mutants exhibit(More)
We generated a ROSA26-eGFP-DTA mouse line by introducing an eGFP-DTA (enhanced green fluorescent protein -- diphtheria toxin fragment A) cassette into the ROSA26 locus by homologous recombination in ES cells. This mouse expresses eGFP ubiquitously, but DTA expression is prevented by the presence of eGFP, a Neo cassette, and a strong transcriptional stop(More)
More than 80 mutant mouse genes disrupt neurulation and allow an in-depth analysis of the underlying developmental mechanisms. Although many of the genetic mutants have been studied in only rudimentary detail, several molecular pathways can already be identified as crucial for normal neurulation. These include the planar cell-polarity pathway, which is(More)
Circletail is one of only two mouse mutants that exhibit the most severe form of neural tube defect (NTD), termed craniorachischisis. In this disorder, almost the entire brain and spinal cord is affected, owing to a failure to initiate neural tube closure. Craniorachischisis is a significant cause of lethality in humans, yet the molecular mechanisms(More)
Planar-cell-polarity (PCP) signalling is necessary for initiation of neural tube closure in higher vertebrates. In mice with PCP gene mutations, a broad embryonic midline prevents the onset of neurulation through wide spacing of the neural folds. In order to evaluate the role of convergent extension in this defect, we vitally labelled the midline of(More)
  • A J Copp
  • 1985
The relationship between timing of closure of the posterior neuropore (PNP) and development of spinal neural tube defects (NTD) has been studied in individual mutant curly tail mouse embryos maintained in culture. Moderate delay in PNP closure results in development of tail flexion defects whereas extreme delay of PNP closure is associated with development(More)
A sub-population of the neural crest is known to play a crucial role in development of the cardiac outflow tract. Studies in avians have mapped the complete migratory pathways taken by 'cardiac' neural crest cells en route from the neural tube to the developing heart. A cardiac neural crest lineage is also known to exist in mammals, although detailed(More)
That speech and language are innate capacities of the human brain has long been widely accepted, but only recently has an entry point into the genetic basis of these remarkable faculties been found. The discovery of a mutation in FOXP2 in a family with a speech and language disorder has enabled neuroscientists to trace the neural expression of this gene(More)
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common, severe congenital malformations whose causation involves multiple genes and environmental factors. Although more than 200 genes are known to cause NTDs in mice, there has been rather limited progress in delineating the molecular basis underlying most human NTDs. Numerous genetic studies have been carried out to(More)