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Dyslexia is one of the most prevalent childhood cognitive disorders, affecting approximately 5% of school-age children. We have recently identified a risk haplotype associated with dyslexia on chromosome 6p22.2 which spans the TTRAP gene and portions of THEM2 and KIAA0319. Here we show that in the presence of the risk haplotype, the expression of the(More)
More than 80 mutant mouse genes disrupt neurulation and allow an in-depth analysis of the underlying developmental mechanisms. Although many of the genetic mutants have been studied in only rudimentary detail, several molecular pathways can already be identified as crucial for normal neurulation. These include the planar cell-polarity pathway, which is(More)
A sub-population of the neural crest is known to play a crucial role in development of the cardiac outflow tract. Studies in avians have mapped the complete migratory pathways taken by 'cardiac' neural crest cells en route from the neural tube to the developing heart. A cardiac neural crest lineage is also known to exist in mammals, although detailed(More)
The evolutionarily conserved planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway (or noncanonical Wnt pathway) drives several important cellular processes, including epithelial cell polarization, cell migration and mitotic spindle orientation. In vertebrates, PCP genes have a vital role in polarized convergent extension movements during gastrulation and neurulation. Here we(More)
We identified two novel mouse mutants with abnormal head-shaking behavior and neural tube defects during the course of independent ENU mutagenesis experiments. The heterozygous and homozygous mutants exhibit defects in the orientation of sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti, indicating a defect in planar cell polarity. The homozygous mutants exhibit(More)
Disruption of FOXP2, a gene encoding a forkhead-domain transcription factor, causes a severe developmental disorder of verbal communication, involving profound articulation deficits, accompanied by linguistic and grammatical impairments. Investigation of the neural basis of this disorder has been limited previously to neuroimaging of affected children and(More)
A study of neuroepithelial morphogenesis in the mouse embryo has identified three modes of neural tube formation that occur consecutively as neurulation progresses along the spinal region. The three modes of neurulation differ in the extent to which the neuroepithelium exhibits formation of "hinge points', i.e. localised bending owing to reduction in apical(More)
Planar-cell-polarity (PCP) signalling is necessary for initiation of neural tube closure in higher vertebrates. In mice with PCP gene mutations, a broad embryonic midline prevents the onset of neurulation through wide spacing of the neural folds. In order to evaluate the role of convergent extension in this defect, we vitally labelled the midline of(More)
Neural tube closure is a fundamental embryonic event whose molecular regulation is poorly understood. As mouse neurulation progresses along the spinal axis, there is a shift from midline neural plate bending to dorsolateral bending. Here, we show that midline bending is not essential for spinal closure since, in its absence, the neural tube can close by a(More)