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Carotenoids provide pigmentation to avian species, and also have immunomodulatory potential, although experimental results are often inconsistent. Therefore, dietary carotenoid deposition into immune tissue of growing chicks was examined in relation to their maternal carotenoid status (i.e., yolk carotenoid level). Single-comb white leghorn chicks were(More)
We conducted a study to evaluate dietary chemopreventive strategies to reduce genotoxic effects of the carcinogens 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ). PhIP and IQ are heterocyclic amines (HCAs) that are found in cooked meat and may be risk factors for cancer. Typical chemoprevention(More)
The incidence of neural tube defects was studied in mouse embryos from dams fed an amino acid-based diet containing 45, 91, 136, 181, 227 or 453 nmol folic acid/kg diet (Experiment 1) or 227, 453, 566, 680, 906, 1132, 1698 or 2266 nmol folic acid/kg diet (Experiment 2). Reproductive tracts were examined 12 d postcoitum and gross and microscopic examination(More)
We present the application of a nonparametric method to performing functional principal component analysis for functional curve data that consist of measurements of a random trajectory for a sample of subjects. This design typically consists of an irregular grid of time points on which repeated measurements are taken for a number of subjects. We introduce(More)
Use of isotopes as tracers has had an important role in elucidating key features of vitamin A and retinoid metabolism in animal models and humans. Their use has shown that beta-carotene absorption is variable, and that the appearance of beta-carotene and its metabolites in the blood by time since dosing follows characteristic patterns. Retinol formed from(More)
The vitamin A status in 11 generally healthy surgical patients was estimated by measuring the dilution of a 45-mg oral dose of tetradeuterated retinyl acetate (99% pure). After purification of retinol by high-performance liquid chromatography, the ratio of 2H4-retinol:1H-retinol in plasma was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. On the basis of(More)
Folate is an essential nutrient that is involved in many metabolic pathways, including amino acid interconversions and nucleotide (DNA) synthesis. In genetically susceptible individuals and populations, dysfunction of folate metabolism is associated with severe illness. Despite the importance of folate, major gaps exist in our quantitative understanding of(More)
Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone expired from tumor-bearing transgenic mice and formaldehyde exhaled from breast cancer patients were analyzed using gas chromatography. The tumor-bearing mice expired significantly more formaldehyde per unit metabolic size (1.43-2.98 micromol) than did control mice (0.77-1.01 micromol). There was no detectable(More)
Long-term physiologic tracing of nutrients, toxins, and drugs in healthy subjects is not possible using traditional decay counting of radioisotopes or stable isotope mass spectrometry due to radiation exposure and limited sensitivity, respectively. A physiologic dose of 14C-labeled folic acid (35 microg, 100 nCi) was ingested by a healthy adult male and(More)
An optimal folate nutritional status is important in minimizing developmental and degenerative disease. Therefore, constant monitoring of folate intake and of biomarkers of folate nutritional status is essential. The objective of this research was to compare two folate intake instruments and validate each one against RBC folate measured by a high-throughput(More)