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A multidetector, continuous wave, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system is developed to examine whether the hemodynamics of the scalp and brain in adults contain significant layer-like hemodynamic trends. NIRS measurements are made using contrasting geometries, one with four detectors equidistant from a source 33 mm away, and one with detectors collinear(More)
In near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of human cerebral hemodynamics, detection of stimulus-related responses is confounded by the presence of unrelated trends in both the brain and the overlying scalp. A proposed strategy for reducing hemodynamic noise has been to record "scalp only" trends simultaneously via a second shorter-separation detector (~5 mm(More)
Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a portable monitor of cerebral hemodynamics with wide clinical potential. However, in fNIRS, the vascular signal from the brain is often obscured by vascular signals present in the scalp and skull. In this paper, we evaluate two methods for improving in vivo data from adult human subjects through the use of(More)
In functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) of human cerebral hemodynamics, dedicated surface-sensitive recording channels are useful for regressing out background hemodynamics and isolating activation-specific responses. A wide variety of source-detector separations have been utilized for this purpose. Here, we report a direct comparison of regression(More)
A microscopy system has been constructed that is capable of simultaneously acquiring both Raman spectra and angle-resolved elastic-scattering patterns in either epi- or transillumination modes with a 7 mum spot size. The benefits and drawbacks of the epi- and transillumination modalities are discussed. Validation studies have been performed on single beads(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to lead (Pb) from environmental and industrial sources remains an overlooked serious public health risk. Elucidating the effect of Pb on bone cell function is therefore critical for understanding its risk associated with diseases of low bone mass. OBJECTIVES We tested the hypothesis that Pb negatively affects bone mass. We also(More)
The ability to quantify uncertainty in information extracted from spectroscopic measurements is important in numerous fields. The traditional approach of repetitive measurements may be impractical or impossible in some measurements scenarios, while chi-squared analysis does not provide insight into the sources of uncertainty. As such, a need exists for(More)
A key design parameter in spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) is the choice of offset distance between the illumination and collection areas. To investigate this choice, we performed SORS measurements on a simple two-layer chemical phantom. We show that while the SORS ratio, or the ratio of signal from the bottom layer to the top layer, monotonically(More)
A new method of mapping multiple species of oral bacteria in intact biofilms has been developed, using the optical technique of confocal Raman microscopy. A species classification algorithm, developed on dried biofilms, was used to analyze spectra of hydrated biofilms containing two microbial species central to dental health: Streptococcus sanguinis and(More)