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In near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of human cerebral hemodynamics, detection of stimulus-related responses is confounded by the presence of unrelated trends in both the brain and the overlying scalp. A proposed strategy for reducing hemodynamic noise has been to record "scalp only" trends simultaneously via a second shorter-separation detector (~5 mm(More)
Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a portable monitor of cerebral hemodynamics with wide clinical potential. However, in fNIRS, the vascular signal from the brain is often obscured by vascular signals present in the scalp and skull. In this paper, we evaluate two methods for improving in vivo data from adult human subjects through the use of(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to lead (Pb) from environmental and industrial sources remains an overlooked serious public health risk. Elucidating the effect of Pb on bone cell function is therefore critical for understanding its risk associated with diseases of low bone mass. OBJECTIVES We tested the hypothesis that Pb negatively affects bone mass. We also(More)
In functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) of human cerebral hemodynamics, dedicated surface-sensitive recording channels are useful for regressing out background hemodynamics and isolating activation-specific responses. A wide variety of source-detector separations have been utilized for this purpose. Here, we report a direct comparison of regression(More)
A new method of mapping multiple species of oral bacteria in intact biofilms has been developed, using the optical technique of confocal Raman microscopy. A species classification algorithm, developed on dried biofilms, was used to analyze spectra of hydrated biofilms containing two microbial species central to dental health: Streptococcus sanguinis and(More)
A key design parameter in spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) is the choice of offset distance between the illumination and collection areas. To investigate this choice, we performed SORS measurements on a simple two-layer chemical phantom. We show that while the SORS ratio, or the ratio of signal from the bottom layer to the top layer, monotonically(More)
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) records hemodynamic changes in the cortex arising from neurovascular coupling. However, (noninvasive) fNIRS recordings also record surface vascular signals arising from noncortical sources (e.g., in the skull, skin, dura, and other tissues located between the sensors and the brain). A current and important focus(More)
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) research to date has tended to publish group-averaged rather than individual infant data due to normative basic research goals. Acquisition of individual infant time courses holds interest, however, both for cognitive science and particularly for clinical applications. Infants are more difficult to study than(More)
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