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Only a small fraction of neurotransmitter-containing synaptic vesicles (SVs), the readily releasable pool, is available for fast Ca(2+)-induced release at any synapse. Most SVs are sequestered at sites away from the plasma membrane and cannot be exocytosed directly. Recruitment of SVs to the releasable pool is thought to be an important component of(More)
Many of the molecules necessary for neurotransmission are homologous to proteins involved in the Golgi-to-plasma membrane stage of the yeast secretory pathway. Of 15 genes known to be essential for the later stages of vesicle trafficking in yeast, 7 have no identified mammalian homologs. These include the yeast SEC6, SEC8, and SEC15 genes, whose products(More)
Hrs-2, via interactions with SNAP-25, plays a regulatory role on the exocytic machinery. We now show that Hrs-2 physically interacts with Eps15, a protein required for receptor-mediated endocytosis. The Hrs-2/Eps15 interaction is calcium dependent, inhibited by SNAP-25 and alpha-adaptin, and results in the inhibition of receptor-mediated endocytosis.(More)
Yeast Vps24p (vacuolar protein sorting) is part of a protein complex suggested to function in sorting/trafficking during endocytosis. We have characterized a mammalian homolog of the yeast protein, mVps24p, and examined its role in epidermal growth factor receptor trafficking. Endogenous mVps24p was distributed in both cytosol and in puncta and partially(More)
In the present study some experimental parameters for in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH) have been analysed using 35S-labelled and alkaline phosphatase-conjugated probes, in order to develop a reproducible double-labelling procedure. We have compared the total exclusion of tissue fixation with tissue sections fixed by immersion in formalin. In(More)
Movement through the endocytic pathway occurs principally via a series of membrane fusion and fission reactions that allow sorting of molecules to be recycled from those to be degraded. Endosome fusion is dependent on SNARE proteins, although the nature of the proteins involved and their regulation has not been fully elucidated. We found that the(More)
suggesting that they too may perform a common function and yet confer specificity to each trafficking step. * Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy Genetic analysis of the yeast constitutive secretory University of Texas pathway has converged with progress on synaptic pro-Health Science Center teins, and mammalian homologs of most of the essential Houston,(More)
We have examined the influence of glutamate on cortical brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Kainic acid (KA) produced an upregulation of hippocampal and neocortical BDNF mRNA as well as BDNF protein that was blocked by a non-NMDA antagonist, 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX), but(More)
Altering the number of surface receptors can rapidly modulate cellular responses to extracellular signals. Some receptors, like the transferrin receptor (TfR), are constitutively internalized and recycled to the plasma membrane. Other receptors, like the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), are internalized after ligand binding and then ultimately(More)
Associations between proteins present on neurotransmitter-containing vesicles and on the presynaptic membrane are thought to underlie docking and fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane, which are obligate steps in regulated neurotransmission. SNAP-25 resides on the plasma membrane and interacts with syntaxin (a plasma membrane t-SNARE) and(More)