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Please refer to the errata for this document, which may include some normative corrections. Abstract The Voice Browser Working Group has sought to develop standards to enable access to the Web using spoken interaction. The Speech Synthesis Markup Language Specification is one of these standards and is designed to provide a rich, XML-based markup language(More)
● Particularly in 1990s, some developers reacted against traditional " heavyweight " software development processes. ● New methods were being developed and tested, – e.g. extreme programming, SCRUM, Feature-driven development – Generally termed " light " processes ● " Representatives " from several of these methods got together in Utah in 2001 – Settled on(More)
—Staircase codes, a new class of forward-error-correction (FEC) codes suitable for high-speed optical communications , are introduced. An ITU-T G.709-compatible staircase code with rate R = 239/255 is proposed, and FPGA-based simulation results are presented, exhibiting a net coding gain (NCG) of 9.41 dB at an output error rate of 10 −15 , an improvement of(More)
In studies worldwide, respiratory outcomes such as cough, wheeze and asthma have been consistently linked to mold exposure. Young children spend most of their time indoors and may be particularly vulnerable. We evaluated the associations between exposure to airborne fungal levels and episodes of wheezing in a cohort of 103 infants at risk for asthma (due to(More)
The Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) event, which occurred about 251.4 million years ago, is marked by the most severe mass extinction in the geologic record. Recent studies of some PTB sites indicate that the extinctions occurred very abruptly, consistent with a catastrophic, possibly extraterrestrial, cause. Fullerenes (C60 to C200) from sediments at the(More)
Exposure to atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM), even at low ambient concentrations, has clearly been linked to increases in mortality and morbidity. A 10- micro g m(-3) increase in PM10 (PM < 10 micro m) has been found to produce a 0.5% increase in daily mortality. The mechanism of action is a source of debate, although recent attention has focused on(More)
We describe an application of AI search and information visu-alization techniques to the problem of school redistricting, in which students are assigned to home schools within a county or school district. This is a multicriteria optimization problem in which competing objectives must be considered, such as school capacity, busing costs, and socioeconomic(More)
Reliably identifying the effects of energy development on groundwater quality can be difficult because baseline assessments of water quality completed before the onset of energy development are rare and because interactions between hydrocarbon reservoirs and aquifers can be complex, involving both natural and human processes. Groundwater age and mixing data(More)
Inadvertent soil ingestion, especially by young children, can be an important route of exposure for many environmental contaminants. The introduction of exterior soil into the interior environment is a significant element of the exposure pathway. The unintentional collection of outside soil on footwear followed by subsequent deposition indoors is a(More)