Andrew Howes

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The authors assume that individuals adapt rationally to a utility function given constraints imposed by their cognitive architecture and the local task environment. This assumption underlies a new approach to modeling and understanding cognition-cognitively bounded rational analysis-that sharpens the predictive acuity of general, integrated theories of(More)
We propose that a fundamental property of human psychology, the need to maintain independent social spheres, imposes constraints on the use of social network sites (SNS). We particularly focus on the consequences of visibility of communications across social spheres, and we hypothesize that technological features of SNS may bring social spheres in conflict,(More)
When people search a set of Web labels for links that are relevant to their information goal, they attend to the labels and estimate the likelihood that the link will lead to the goal. Recent findings indicate that people sometimes, but not always, assess only a subset of the links available. We report an ACT-R model of Web-page search that was inspired by(More)
We propose a framework for including information-processing bounds in rational analyses. It is an application of bounded optimality (Russell & Subramanian, 1995) to the challenges of developing theories of mechanism and behavior. The framework is based on the idea that behaviors are generated by cognitive mechanisms that are adapted to the structure of not(More)
This paper presents X-PRT, a new cognitive modeling tool supporting activities ranging from interface design to basic cognitive research. X-PRT provides a graphical model development environment for the CORE constraint-based cognitive modeling engine [7,13,21]. X-PRT comprises a novel feature set: (a) it supports the automatic generation of predictive(More)
In this paper we report a new approach to generating predictions about skilled interactive cognition. The approach, which we call Cognitive Constraint Modeling, takes as input a description of the constraints on a task environment, on user strategies, and on the human cognitive architecture and generates as output a prediction of the time course of(More)
This paper presents a novel mathematical model for visual search and selection time in linear menus. Assuming two visual search strategies, serial and directed, and a pointing sub-task, it captures the change of performance with five fac- tors: 1) menu length, 2) menu organization, 3) target position, 4) absence/presence of target, and 5) practice. The(More)
When users of interactive computers must work with new software without formal training , they rely on strategies for ‘‘exploratory learning’’ . These include trial and error , asking for help from other users , and looking for information in printed and on-line documentation . This paper describes a cognitive model of exploratory learning , which covers(More)
There is much evidence that chess skill is based on chunks in memory that represent parts of positions from previously encountered games. However, the content of these chunks is a matter for debate. According to one view, (1) the closer two pieces are to each other on a board (proximity), the more likely they are to be in the same chunk, and (2) skilled(More)