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The exit of antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes from inflamed skin to afferent lymph is vital for the initiation and maintenance of dermal immune responses. How such an exit is achieved and how cells transmigrate the distinct endothelium of lymphatic vessels are unknown. We show that inflammatory cytokines trigger activation of dermal lymphatic(More)
A continuous, peroxidase-linked spectrophotometric assay is described which is suitable for measuring monoamine and diamine oxidase and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activities in tissue homogenates. In the assay, 4-aminoantipyrine is oxidized and then condenses with vanillic acid to give a red quinoneimine dye. The absorbance at 498 nm is(More)
This absorbance plate-reader-based assay is suitable for the examination of monoamine oxidase and copper amine oxidase activities versus numerous substrates. The assay is robust, continuous, rapid, highly quantitative, reasonably sensitive, inexpensive and suitable for automation. In the presence of a suitable amine substrate, amine oxidase enzymes generate(More)
The regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) has been studied extensively due to the fundamental roles these zinc-endopeptidases play in diverse physiological and pathological processes. However, phosphorylation has not previously been considered as a potential modulator of MMP activity. The ubiquitously expressed MMP-2 contains 29 potential(More)
Apart from its ability to degrade extracellular matrix proteins, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) was recently revealed to have targets and actions within the cardiac myocyte. The localization of MMP-2 in caveolae of endothelial cells suggests that caveolin-1 (Cav-1) may play a role in regulating MMP-2. The caveolin scaffolding domain (CSD) of Cav-1(More)
The exposure sources of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in humans and wildlife are not well characterized. Human biomonitoring data show that PFOS profiles may consist of up to approximately 50% branched isomers, despite the fact that historical direct manufacturing of PFOS generally resulted in products containing no more than approximately 30% branched(More)
UNLABELLED The liver contains macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) that are critical for the regulation of hepatic inflammation. Most hepatic macrophages and mDCs are derived from monocytes recruited from the blood through poorly understood interactions with hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSECs). Human CD16(+) monocytes are thought to(More)
Clonidine-displacing substance, thought to be the endogenous ligand for imidazoline receptors, has been identified recently as agmatine (1-amino-4-guanidinobutane). The similarity of this compound's structure to that of the diamine oxidase (DAO) inhibitor, aminoguanidine, led us to investigate the possibility that agmatine might be a substrate for this(More)
Liver cirrhosis is caused by iterative cycles of tissue injury, inflammation, and repair. Although most causes of acute hepatitis resolve without scarring, chronic hepatitis is associated with persistent inflammation and matrix remodeling, which leads to fibrosis and, eventually, cirrhosis. The mechanisms that govern wound healing involve interactions(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The recruitment of lymphocytes to tissues via endothelium has been studied extensively but less is known about the signals that direct migration and positioning within tissues. Liver myofibroblasts associate with lymphocytes in hepatitis and are positioned below the sinusoidal endothelium, through which lymphocytes are recruited to the(More)