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To date, all human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) available for research require unidentified soluble factors secreted from feeder layers to maintain the undifferentiated state and pluripotency. Activation of STAT3 by leukemia inhibitory factor is required to maintain "stemness" in mouse embryonic stem cells, but not in hESCs, suggesting the existence of(More)
Excessive water uptake through Aquaporins (AQP) can be life-threatening and reversible AQP inhibitors are needed. Here, we determined the specificity, potency, and binding site of tetraethylammonium (TEA) to block Aquaporin water permeability. Using oocytes, externally applied TEA blocked AQP1/AQP2/AQP4 with IC50 values of 1.4, 6.2, and 9.8 microM,(More)
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma persists as one of the most common and deadly malignancies, with early detection and effective treatment still posing formidable challenges. To expand our currently sparse knowledge of the noncoding alterations involved in the disease and identify potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets, we globally profiled the(More)
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to differentiate into many adult cell types, and they are being explored as a resource for cell replacement therapies for multiple diseases. In order to optimize in vitro differentiation protocols, it will be necessary to elucidate regulatory mechanisms that contribute to lineage specification. MicroRNAs(More)
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an aggressive disease marked by frequent recurrence and metastasis and stagnant survival rates. To enhance molecular knowledge of HNSCC and define a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) landscape of the disease, we profiled the transcriptome-wide dysregulation of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and(More)
Bicuspid aortic valves calcify at a significantly higher rate than normal aortic valves, a process that involves increased inflammation. Because we have previously found that bicuspid aortic valve experience greater stretch, we investigated the potential connection between stretch and inflammation in human aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs).(More)
We conducted a double-blind trial with the calcium antagonist, diltiazem (8 mg/kg/d), for 24 to 32 months in 22 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, who were paired by functional activity and age. No adverse clinical or ECG effects of diltiazem were detected. In eight matched pairs, completing 28 months, manual muscle testing scores fell somewhat less in(More)
We have demonstrated that maneuvers capable of reducing Ca influx into cells have beneficial effects in dystrophic hamsters and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Since dantrolene inhibits Ca release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, its effects on DMD was studied in 7 patients of 6 to 13 years of age (mean 10.8 years). Patients were studied for 4 years with(More)
Although increased bone density has been reported in patients with hypoparathyroidism, it is not known whether hypoparathyroidism can overcome the influence of risk factors for osteoporosis and whether the increased bone density is uniform throughout the entire skeleton or greater in certain regions depending on the bone composition and location. In the(More)