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Following an episode of optic neuritis, thinning of the retinal nerve fibre layer, which indicates axonal loss, is observed using optical coherence tomography. The longitudinal course of the retinal changes has not been well characterized. We performed a serial optical coherence tomography study in patients presenting with optic neuritis in order to define(More)
Axonal loss is thought to be the predominant cause of disability in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) is composed largely of unmyelinated axons of retinal ganglion cells, and is accessible to study with optical coherence tomography (OCT), giving a measure of axonal loss. OCT measures of the RNFL thickness (RNFLT) and(More)
The afferent visual pathway is commonly affected in MS. Assessment of the afferent visual pathway using clinical, imaging and electrophysiological methods not only provides insights into the pathophysiology of MS, but also provides a method of investigating potential therapeutic measures in MS. This review summarises the various assessment methods, in(More)
Behavioural and trapping studies of the social organization of coypus have suggested the occurrence of kin groups and a polygynous mating system. We used 16 microsatellite markers to analyse parentage and relatedness relationships in two populations (Jáuregui and Villa Ruiz) in the Argentinean Pampas. At Jáuregui, a dominant male monopolized most(More)
OBJECTIVE CD4 T-cell-dependent macrophage activation directed against a myelin or oligodendrocyte antigen is generally thought to be the mechanism causing myelin destruction in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, areas within expanding MS lesions may exhibit prominent oligodendrocyte loss and apoptosis in the absence of infiltrating lymphocytes. The present(More)
Thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) of clinically unaffected eyes is seen in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It is uncertain when this thinning occurs, and whether ongoing RNFL loss can be measured over time with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Using time-domain OCT, we studied 34 patients with progressive MS (16 primary progressive(More)
OBJECTIVE Acute optic neuritis due to an inflammatory demyelinating lesion of the optic nerve is often seen in association with multiple sclerosis. Although functional recovery usually follows the acute episode of visual loss, persistent visual deficits are common and are probably due to axonal loss. The mechanisms of axonal loss and early features that(More)
Dynamic binary analysis is a prevalent and indispensable technique in program analysis. While several dynamic binary analysis tools and frameworks have been proposed, all suffer from one or more of: prohibitive performance degradation, semantic gap between the analysis code and the program being analyzed, architecture/OS specificity, being user-mode only,(More)
OBJECTIVE We examined a cohort of adults with aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody-negative neuromyelitis optica/neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMO/NMOSD) for antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). METHODS We performed a flow cytometry cell-based assay using live human lentivirus-transduced cells expressing full-length surface MOG. Serum(More)
Retinoids are important molecules involved in the development and homeostasis of the nervous system. As such, various retinoid derivatives are often found in culture media and supplement formulations to support the growth and maintenance of neural cells. However, all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and its associated derivatives are light sensitive and are(More)