Andrew H. Gee

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3-D freehand ultrasound is a new imaging technique that is rapidly finding clinical applications. A position-sensing device is attached to a conventional ultrasound probe so that, as B-scans are acquired, they can be labelled with their relative positions and orientations. This allows a 3-D data set to be constructed from the B-scans. A key requirement of(More)
Three-dimensional freehand ultrasound imaging produces a set of irregularly spaced B-scans, which are typically reconstructed on a regular grid for visualization and data analysis. Most standard reconstruction algorithms are designed to minimize computational requirements and do not exploit the underlying shape of the data. We investigate whether an(More)
Conventional freehand three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound is a multi-stage process. First, the clinician scans the area of interest. Next, the ultrasound data is used to construct a 3-D voxel array, which can then be visualized by, for example, any-plane slicing. The strict separation of data acquisition and visualization disturbs the interactive nature of(More)
This paper describes a high-definition freehand 3-D ultrasound (US) system, with accuracy surpassing that of previously documented systems. 3-D point location accuracy within a US data set can be achieved to within 0.5 mm. Such accuracy is possible through a series of novel system-design and calibration techniques. The accuracy is quantified using a(More)
This article surveys current techniques for the acquisition, visualisation and quantitative analysis of three-dimensional ultrasound data. Particular attention is paid to the design and implementation of freehand systems. The extensive bibliography includes references to a wide range of clinical applications. 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
One of the most promising applications of 3-D ultrasound (US) lies in the visualisation and volume estimation of internal 3-D structures. Unfortunately, artifacts and speckle make automatic analysis of the 3-D data sets difficult. In this study, we investigated the use of 3-D spatial compounding to improve data quality, and found that precise registration(More)
We present an elastography system using freehand 3D ultrasound. A review is provided of the standard elastography methods that have been adapted for this purpose. The scanning protocol is simple and promising results are presented of 3D strain images from freehand scans. Robustness is a problem, however, and the main sources of error are explained. Measures(More)
One of the most promising applications of 3-D ultrasound lies in the visualization and volume estimation of internal 3-D structures. Unfortunately, the quality of the ultrasound data can be severely degraded by artefacts and speckle, making automatic analysis of the 3-D data sets very difficult. In this paper we investigate the use of 3-D spatial(More)
Marching cubes is a simple and popular method for extracting iso-surfaces from implicit functions or discrete three-dimensional (3-D) data. However, it does not guarantee the surface to be topologically consistent with the data, and it creates triangulations which contain many triangles of poor aspect ratio. Marching tetrahedra is a variation of marching(More)