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BACKGROUND The rates of death are high among patients with coinfection with tuberculosis and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The optimal timing for the initiation of antiretroviral therapy in relation to tuberculosis therapy remains controversial. METHODS In an open-label, randomized, controlled trial in Durban, South Africa, we assigned 642(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of physical and psychosocial risk factors with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in New Zealand nurses, postal workers and office workers. DESIGN A cross-sectional postal survey asking about demographic, physical and psychosocial factors and MSDs. PARTICIPANTS A total of 911 participants was randomly selected;(More)
Abstract For omnidirectional wireless broadcast, if a node has sufficient power to broadcast to another node, it also has the ability to broadcast to all closer nodes. This is the wireless advantage. For the broadcast problem, one node (the source) is required to communicate to all other nodes, by a single transmission to the farthest node or using(More)
This study is the first nationwide population survey to explore the association between speed of eating and degree of obesity. The objective was to cross-sectionally examine the relationship between self-reported speed of eating and body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)) in a nationally representative sample of New Zealand women. In May 2009, a sample(More)
Before the 2005 launch of the New Zealand SunSmart Schools Accreditation Programme (SSAP), 242 randomly sampled primary schools completed a mail survey about sun protection policies, practices, curriculum and environment. A 2009 follow-up included 189 (78%) and their mean Total Accreditation Score (TAS = total SSAP requirements met, range 0-12), increased(More)
Broadcasting in wireless networks, unlike wired networks, inherently reaches several nodes with a single transmission. For omni-directional wireless broadcast to a node, all nodes closer will also be reached. This property can be used to compute routing trees which minimize the sum of the transmitter powers. It has been shown that this problem is(More)
Swarm intelligence, as demonstrated by natural biological swarms, has numerous powerful properties desirable in many engineering systems, such as network routing. In addition, new paradigms for designing autonomous and scalable systems may result from analytically understanding and extending the design principles and operations exhibited by intelligent(More)
There has been growing general interest in infrastructureless or “ad hoc” wireless networks recently as evidenced by such activities as the MANET (Mobile Ad hoc NETworking) working group within the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Other examples are plans unveiled for NASA’s Earth orbit satellite constellation networks, and the Mars network,(More)
We consider the problem of maximizing the timeto-first-failure, defined as the time till the first node in the network runs out of battery energy, in energy constrained broadcast wireless networks. We discuss a greedy algorithm and prove that it solves the problem optimally for a broadcast application, in polynomial time, provided the complete power matrix(More)
AIM To estimate the frequency of walking to school among primary school children and examine associated factors. METHOD In-class survey of Years 1-6 children attending Dunedin primary schools, November 2004, and a take home, written questionnaire for parents and caregivers. RESULTS On study day, 34.5% of children walked to school and 36.8% intended to(More)