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We have isolated artificial ligands or aptamers for infectious prions in order to investigate conformational aspects of prion pathogenesis. The aptamers are 2'-fluoro-modified RNA produced by in vitro selection from a large, randomized library. One of these ligands (aptamer SAF-93) had more than 10-fold higher affinity for PrPSc than for recombinant PrPC(More)
The human PrP gene (PRNP) has two common alleles that encode either methionine or valine at codon 129. This polymorphism modulates disease susceptibility and phenotype of human transmissible spongiform encyphalopathies, but the molecular mechanism by which these effects are mediated remains unclear. Here, we compared the misfolding pathway that leads to the(More)
Finite maps are ubiquitous in many applications, but perhaps nowhere more so than in compilers and other language processors. In these applications, three operations on nite maps dominate all others: looking up the value associated with a key, inserting a new binding, and merging two nite maps. Most implementations of nite maps in functional languages are(More)
The prion protein PrP is a naturally occurring polypeptide that becomes transformed from a normal conformation to that of an aggregated form, characteristic of pathological states in fatal transmissible spongiform conditions such as Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy. We report the crystal structure, at 2 A resolution, of residues(More)
Clinical diagnosis and research into transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are hampered by the lack of sufficiently sensitive and specific reagents able to adequately detect the normal cellular form of the prion protein, PrP(C), and the pathological isoform, PrP(Sc). In order to provide such reagents, we applied Systematic Evolution of Ligands by(More)
The aqueous solution structure of the full-length recombinant ovine prion protein PrP(25-233), together with that of the N-terminal truncated version PrP(94-233), have been studied using vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) and ultraviolet circular dichroism (UVCD). A sharp positive band at approximately 1315 cm(-1) characteristic of poly(L-proline) II(More)
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) has drawn significant interest in the neuroscience research community because it is one of the most compelling targets for a potential disease-modifying Parkinson's disease therapy. Herein, we disclose structurally diverse small molecule inhibitors suitable for assessing the implications of sustained in vivo LRRK2(More)
There is a high demand for potent, selective, and brain-penetrant small molecule inhibitors of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) to test whether inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity is a potentially viable treatment option for Parkinson's disease patients. Herein we disclose the use of property and structure-based drug design for the optimization of(More)
The vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) spectrum of a polypeptide in a model beta-sheet conformation, that of poly(l-lysine), was measured for the first time, and the alpha-helix --> beta-sheet transition monitored as a function of temperature in H(2)O and D(2)O. Although no significant population of a disordered backbone state was detected at(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the addition value of umbilical artery Doppler ultrasound added to standard ultrasound biometry measurements in the management of twin pregnancies. DESIGN A prospective randomised controlled multicentre trial of women with twin pregnancies. SETTING Tertiary level referral hospitals in Australia, New Zealand and Southeast Asia. (More)