Andrew G. Van Kessel

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The inclusion of antibiotic growth promoters, such as virginiamycin, at subtherapeutic levels in poultry feeds has a positive effect on health and growth characteristics, possibly due to beneficial effects on the host gastrointestinal microbiota. To improve our understanding of the chicken gastrointestinal microbiota and the effect of virginiamycin on its(More)
A germ-free neonatal pig model was established to determine the effects of bacterial colonization by different species on small intestinal morphology and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression. Two experimental groups of 16 pigs were aseptically delivered by cesarian section and allocated into 4 gnotobiotic isolators. Pigs were either maintained germ-free(More)
Dietary inclusion of fermentable carbohydrates (fCHO) is reported to reduce large intestinal formation of putatively toxic metabolites derived from fermentable proteins (fCP). However, the influence of diets high in fCP concentration on epithelial response and interaction with fCHO is still unclear. Thirty-two weaned piglets were fed 4 diets in a 2 × 2(More)
The gastrointestinal tract harbors a complex community of bacteria, of which many may be beneficial. Studies of germ-free animal models have shown that the gastrointestinal microbiota not only assists in making nutrients available for the host but also contributes to intestinal health and development. We studied small intestinal protein expression patterns(More)
The impact of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) differing in their functional properties on intestinal bacterial community composition, prevalence of butyrate production pathway genes, and occurrence of Escherichia coli virulence factors was studied for eight ileum-cannulated growing pigs by use of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and(More)
Previous studies have reported that intestinal populations of Clostridium perfringens, the causative agent of necrotic enteritis (NE), are correlated with diets high in glycine. To establish a direct causative link, 3 trials were conducted to examine the effect of dietary glycine levels on gut populations of C. perfringens, alpha-toxin production, and NE(More)
Complex microbial communities remain poorly characterized despite their ubiquity and importance to human and animal health, agriculture, and industry. Attempts to describe microbial communities by either traditional microbiological methods or molecular methods have been limited in both scale and precision. The availability of genomics technologies offers an(More)
The influence of the carbohydrate (CHO) composition of cereal cultivars on microbial ecophysiology was studied using an in vitro model of the porcine gastrointestinal tract. Ten hull-less barley cultivars, six barley cultivars with hulls, six oat cultivars, and six oat groats that differed in beta-glucan, nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP), and starch contents(More)
To gain insight into host-microbe interactions in a piglet model, a functional genomics approach was used to address the working hypothesis that transcriptionally regulated genes associated with promoting epithelial barrier function are activated as a defensive response to the intestinal microbiota. Cesarean-derived germfree (GF) newborn piglets were(More)
We examined the microbial community structure and quantified the levels of the filamentous bulking organism Thiothrix eikelboomii in samples of activated sludge mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) from Canadian pulp and paper mills. Libraries of chaperonin 60 (cpn60) gene sequences were prepared from MLSS total microbial community DNA and each was compared(More)