Andrew G. Stephen

Learn More
Individual protein binding sites on DNA can be measured in bits of information. This information is related to the free energy of binding by the second law of thermodynamics, but binding kinetics appear to be inaccessible from sequence information since the relative contributions of the on- and off-rates to the binding constant, and hence the free energy,(More)
The Gag polyprotein of HIV-1 is essential for retroviral replication and packaging. The nucleocapsid (NC) protein is the primary region for the interaction of Gag with nucleic acids. In this study, we examine the interactions of Gag and its NC cleavage products (NCp15, NCp9 and NCp7) with nucleic acids using solution and single molecule experiments. The NC(More)
The HIV-1 nucleocapsid (NC) protein is a small, basic protein containing two retroviral zinc fingers. It is a highly active nucleic acid chaperone; because of this activity, it plays a crucial role in virus replication as a cofactor during reverse transcription, and is probably important in other steps of the replication cycle as well. We previously(More)
Human tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase (Tdp1) processes 3'-blocking lesions, predominantly 3'-phosphotyrosyl bonds resulting from the trapping of topoisomerase I (Top1) cleavage complexes. The controversial ability of yeast Tdp1 to hydrolyze 5'-phosphotyrosyl linkage between topoisomerase II (Top2) and DNA raises the question whether human Tdp1 possesses(More)
By enzymatically hydrolyzing the terminal phosphodiester bond at the 3'-ends of DNA breaks, tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase (Tdp1) repairs topoisomerase-DNA covalent complexes and processes the DNA ends for DNA repair. To identify novel Tdp1 inhibitors, we developed a high-throughput assay that uses electrochemiluminescent (ECL) substrates. Subsequent to(More)
The interaction between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 and the CD4 receptor is highly specific and involves relatively small contact surfaces on both proteins according to crystal structure analysis. This molecularly conserved interaction presents an excellent opportunity for antiviral targeting. Here we report a group of pentavalent(More)
Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (Tdp1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 3'-phosphotyrosyl bonds. Such linkages form in vivo when topoisomerase I (Top1) processes DNA. For this reason, Tdp1 has been implicated in the repair of irreversible Top1-DNA covalent complexes. Tdp1 inhibitors have been regarded as potential therapeutics in combination(More)
Prenylated proteins play key roles in several human diseases including cancer, atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. KRAS4b, which is frequently mutated in pancreatic, colon and lung cancers, is processed by farnesylation, proteolytic cleavage and carboxymethylation at the C-terminus. Plasma membrane localization of KRAS4b requires this processing as(More)
Computation of K D values See reference [1] for definitions of symbols, methods and the equations used. The competitor EMSA experiments were repeated three times with different competitor concentrations (C 0). K Dw and R 0 were simultaneouly adjusted to fit two criteria. First, the K D of the Hin-180 oligo was made to match the published value of HinD , 2 ×(More)
  • 1