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Vaults are large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes of undetermined function. Mammalian vaults have two high molecular mass proteins of 193 and 240 kDa. We have identified a partial cDNA encoding the 240-kDa vault protein and determined it is identical to the mammalian telomerase-associated component, TEP1. TEP1 is the mammalian homolog of the(More)
Ras proteins play a major role in human cancers but have not yielded to therapeutic attack. Ras-driven cancers are among the most difficult to treat and often excluded from therapies. The Ras proteins have been termed "undruggable," based on failures from an era in which understanding of signaling transduction, feedback loops, redundancy, tumor(More)
The identification of small molecules that inhibit the sequence-specific binding of transcription factors to DNA is an attractive approach for regulation of gene expression. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that controls genes involved in glycolysis, angiogenesis, migration, and invasion, all of which are important for tumor(More)
Individual protein binding sites on DNA can be measured in bits of information. This information is related to the free energy of binding by the second law of thermodynamics, but binding kinetics appear to be inaccessible from sequence information since the relative contributions of the on- and off-rates to the binding constant, and hence the free energy,(More)
Vault RNA (vRNA) genes have been cloned from several vertebrates including rat, mouse, and humans. Their copy numbers vary, as does the length of the encoded RNA. We have determined that the mouse genome contains two vRNA genes; one is expressed the other is a pseudogene. In vitro transcription of the rat vRNA gene by RNA polymerase III has previously been(More)
By enzymatically hydrolyzing the terminal phosphodiester bond at the 3'-ends of DNA breaks, tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase (Tdp1) repairs topoisomerase-DNA covalent complexes and processes the DNA ends for DNA repair. To identify novel Tdp1 inhibitors, we developed a high-throughput assay that uses electrochemiluminescent (ECL) substrates. Subsequent to(More)
The Gag polyprotein of HIV-1 is essential for retroviral replication and packaging. The nucleocapsid (NC) protein is the primary region for the interaction of Gag with nucleic acids. In this study, we examine the interactions of Gag and its NC cleavage products (NCp15, NCp9 and NCp7) with nucleic acids using solution and single molecule experiments. The NC(More)
Vaults are the largest (13 megadalton) cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles known to exist in eukaryotic cells. They have a unique barrel-shaped structure with 8-fold symmetry. Although the precise function of vaults is unknown, their wide distribution and highly conserved morphology in eukaryotes suggests that their function is essential and that their(More)
Human tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase (Tdp1) processes 3'-blocking lesions, predominantly 3'-phosphotyrosyl bonds resulting from the trapping of topoisomerase I (Top1) cleavage complexes. The controversial ability of yeast Tdp1 to hydrolyze 5'-phosphotyrosyl linkage between topoisomerase II (Top2) and DNA raises the question whether human Tdp1 possesses(More)
Retroviral Gag proteins encode small peptide motifs known as late domains that promote the release of virions from infected cells by interacting directly with host cell factors. Three types of retroviral late domains, with core sequences P(T/S)AP, YPX(n)L, and PPPY, have been identified. HIV-1 encodes a primary P(T/S)AP-type late domain and an apparently(More)