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Human nerve fibers exhibit a distinct pattern of threshold fluctuation following a single action potential known as the recovery cycle. We developed geometrically and electrically accurate models of mammalian motor nerve fibers to gain insight into the biophysical mechanisms that underlie the changes in axonal excitability and regulate the recovery cycle.(More)
Although multiple lines of evidence implicate the primary motor cortex (M1) in motor learning, the precise role of M1 in the adaptation to novel movement dynamics and in the subsequent consolidation of a memory of those dynamics remains unclear. Here we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to dissociate the contribution of M1 to these(More)
The excitation and conduction properties of computer-based cable models of mammalian motor nerve fibres, incorporating three different myelin representations, are compared. The three myelin representations are a perfectly insulating single cable (model A), a finite impedance single cable (model B) and a finite impedance double cable (model C). Extracellular(More)
Humans adaptively control reaching movements to maintain good performance in the presence of novel forces acting on the arm. A recent study suggested that motor memories of different force conditions are not transformed from fragile to stable states, but rather are always vulnerable to interference from newly learned conditions (Caithness et al., 2004).(More)
It is often assumed that learning takes place by changing an otherwise stable neural representation. To test this assumption, we studied changes in the directional tuning of primate motor cortical neurons during reaching movements performed in familiar and novel environments. During the familiar task, tuning curves exhibited slow random drift. During(More)
Calcium imaging is a versatile experimental approach capable of resolving single neurons with single-cell spatial resolution in the brain. Electrophysiological recordings provide high temporal, but limited spatial resolution, because of the geometrical inaccessibility of the brain. An approach that integrates the advantages of both techniques could provide(More)
Neurons in the primary motor cortex (M1) have been shown to have persistent, memory-like activity following adaptation to altered movement dynamics. However, the techniques used to study these memory traces limited recordings to only single sessions lasting no more than a few hours. Here, chronically implanted microelectrode arrays were used to study the(More)
The Neurochip-2 is a second generation, battery-powered device for neural recording and stimulating that is small enough to be carried in a chamber on a monkey's head. It has three recording channels, with user-adjustable gains, filters, and sampling rates, that can be optimized for recording single unit activity, local field potentials,(More)
Sensorimotor adaptation and sequence learning have often been treated as distinct forms of motor learning. But frequently the motor system must acquire both types of experience simultaneously. Here, we investigated the interaction of these two forms of motor learning by having subjects adapt to predictable forces imposed by a robotic manipulandum while(More)