Andrew G D Bean

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Host immunity to mycobacterial infection is dependent on the activation of T lymphocytes and their recruitment with monocytes to form granulomas. These discrete foci of activated macrophages and lymphocytes provide a microenvironment for containing the infection. The cytokine, TNF, is essential for the formation and maintenance of granulomas, but the(More)
In mammals, Mda5 and RIG-I are members of the evolutionary conserved RIG-like helicase family that play critical roles in the outcome of RNA virus infections. Resolving influenza infection in mammals has been shown to require RIG-I; however, the apparent absence of a RIG-I homolog in chickens raises intriguing questions regarding how this species deals with(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play key roles in the response to pathogens and in mammals the host response to virus critically relies on TLR3 to detect viral-derived dsRNA. However, in chickens there is a paucity of information about this pathway, and in view of the recent concerns with regard to highly pathogenic avian influenza, there is a clear need for(More)
The use of antibiotic feed additives and chemical antimicrobials in food production animals is a double-edged sword. On one hand, it helps to prevent the outbreak of disease and promotes the growth of animals, but on the other hand, concerns are mounting over the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. As a consequence, some countries have already(More)
Nucleic acid-induced gene silencing, such as RNA interference (RNAi), induces a multitude of responses in addition to the knockdown of a gene. This is best understood in the context of the antiviral immune response, from which the processes of RNAi are thought to be derived. Viral challenge of a vertebrate host leads to an intricate series of responses that(More)
BACKGROUND The mechanisms of disease severity caused by H5N1 influenza virus infection remain somewhat unclear. Studies have indicated that a high viral load and an associated hyper inflammatory immune response are influential during the onset of infection. This dysregulated inflammatory response with increased levels of free radicals, such as nitric oxide(More)
While the effective use of antibiotics for the control of human disease has saved countless lives and has increased life expectancy over the past few decades, there are concerns arising from their usage in livestock. The use of antibiotic feed additives in food production animals has been linked to the emergence in the food chain of multiple drug-resistant(More)
To better understand the immune response to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, we compared expression of cytokines in chickens infected with avian influenza virus (A/Vietnam/1203/04) to that in uninfected chickens. Gene expression analyses revealed that influenza disseminated to multiple organs where immune responses could be identified. Among those(More)
Understanding the molecular basis of drug resistance and utilising this information to overcome chemoresistance remains a key challenge in oncology. Here we report that survivin, a key protein implicated in drug resistance, is overexpressed in cancer stem cell pool of doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells. Moreover, by utilising an active targeting(More)
Interferons (IFN) provide a critical first line of defense against viral infection in vertebrates. Moreover, IFN-lambda, a recently identified group of mammalian IFN, has demonstrated antiviral potential in the treatment of mammalian viruses. With the growing concern over such diseases as avian influenza (AI), there is a pressing need for new antiviral(More)