Andrew G. Cudworth

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Evidence is presented for the existence of a separate species of islet-cell antibodies which fix complement. Investigations in type I diabetics, non-diabetic polyendocrine patients, and unaffected first-degree relatives of type I diabetic probands show that the complement-fixing islet-cell antibodies are more closely related to the onset of clinical disease(More)
HL-A typing of 150 patients who had developed diabetes mellitus by the age of 30 years showed a significant association with HL-A 8 and W 15. The HL-A genotypes were determined in 17 families in which two or more siblings had this type of diabetes. The zygotic assortment of HL-A haplotypes was found to be significantly disturbed from the expected random(More)
The effect of syrup, B.P. and codeine phosphate syrup, B.P.C. on blood alcohol levels was determined in six normal subjects. 2 Treatment with syrup alone had little or no influence on the concentration of ethanol in blood. 3 In contrast, pretreatment with codeine phosphate syrup significantly reduced alcohol absorption, as assessed by the maximum blood(More)
HLA-DR and MT1, MT2, MT3 genotypes have been investigated in 123 Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects and their families. Ninety-eight percent of probands possessed either DR3 (relative risk = 5.0), or DR4 (relative risk = 6.8) or both antigens (relative risk = 14.3), emphasizing the strong association of the disease with these two antigens. Almost(More)
In a prospective investigation of the prediabetic period before onset of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes, HLA genotypes were determined in 582 healthy parents and siblings of 160 affected children. Islet cell antibody was sought by both the conventional (ICA-IgG) and the complement fixation (CF-ICA) techniques during regular prospective observation over(More)
The proportion of blood mononuclear cells forming low-affinity rosettes with sheep erythrocytes (K cells) was abnormally high in 13 (57%) of 23 children with classical type-1 diabetes at diagnosis but normal in children who had had diabetes for more than a year. A raised proportion of K cells was also found in 5 out of 10 unaffected siblings with islet-cell(More)
A total of 106 pairs of identical twins, of whom 56 were concordant and 50 discordant for insulin-dependent diabetes, were typed for HLA-DR. In both the concordant and discordant groups there was a high prevalence of the antigens DR3 and DR4, a low prevalence of DR5 and DR7, and a virtual absence of DR2. The heterozygous phenotype DR3,DR4 was more prevalent(More)
HLA genotypes were ascertained in 150 families with a diabetic child from the same geographical area. There was preferential zygotic assortment of the paternal HLA A1-B8 haplotype (63--65% compared with the expected 50%) in 69 diabetic families and 33 control families (pooled from elsewhere) who were informative for this haplotype. In diabetic families, the(More)