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Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastro-enteritis in the developed world. It is thought to infect 2-3 million people a year in the US alone, at a cost to the economy in excess of US $4 billion. C. jejuni is a widespread zoonotic pathogen that is carried by animals farmed for meat and poultry. A connection with contaminated food is(More)
Responsible for the majority of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world, Campylobacter jejuni is a pervasive pathogen of humans and animals, but its evolution is obscure. In this paper, we exploit contemporary genetic diversity and empirical evidence to piece together the evolutionary history of C. jejuni and quantify its evolutionary potential.(More)
We analyze recombination in C. jejuni using MLST data from isolates taken from wild birds, cattle, wild rabbits, and water in a 100-km2 study region in Cheshire, UK. We use a recent approximate likelihood method for inference, based on combining likelihood information from all pairs of segregating (polymorphic) sites in the data. We find substantial(More)
In a study of Campylobacter infection in northwestern England, 2003-2006, C. jejuni multilocus sequence type (ST)-45 was associated with early summer onset and was the most prevalent C. jejuni type in surface waters. ST-45 is likely more adapted to survival outside a host, making it a key driver of transmission between livestock, environmental, and human(More)
Detailed understanding of the epidemiology of Campylobacter is increasingly facilitated through use of universal and reproducible techniques for accurate strain differentiation and subtyping. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) enables discriminatory subtyping and grouping of isolate types into genetically related clonal complexes; it also has the advantage(More)
The rate of urbanization in developing countries, defined as the speed with which a population shifts from rural to urban areas, is among the highest in the world. The disproportionate number of citizens that live in a small numbers of cities places incredible pressure on the largest cities in these countries, which may already be faced with limited(More)
Giardia duodenalis is a major cause of infectious gastroenteritis worldwide, and it is diversified into eight genetic assemblages (A to H), which are distinguishable only by molecular typing. There is some evidence that the assemblages infecting humans (assemblages A and B) may have different transmission routes, but systematically acquired data, combining(More)
The protozoan Giardia duodenalis is a common but highly diverse human parasite that comprises a complex of seven morphologically identical genetic assemblages, further divided into sub-assemblages. There is very little information available on the diversity of Giardia sub-assemblages and multi-locus genotypes infecting people in the United Kingdom. In this(More)