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OBJECTIVE To describe the circumstances of two cases of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in north Queensland in 1998, including one acquired on the Australian mainland. DESIGN Serological surveillance of sentinel pigs for JE virus activity; serological surveys of humans and pigs and viral cultures of mosquito collections. SETTING Islands in the Torres Strait(More)
In mid-January 2000, the reappearance of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus activity in the Australasian region was first demonstrated by the isolation of JE virus from 3 sentinel pigs on Badu Island in the Torres Strait. Further evidence of JE virus activity was revealed through the isolation of JE virus from Culex gelidus mosquitoes collected on Badu Island(More)
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) (Flavivirus: Flaviviridae) is a leading cause of encephalitis in eastern and southern Asia. The virus is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between ardeid wading birds and/or pigs and Culex mosquitoes. The primary mosquito vector of JEV is Culex tritaeniorhynchus, although species such as Cx. gelidus, Cx. fuscocephala, and Cx.(More)
Incidence of disease due to dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and yellow fever (YFV) viruses is increasing in many parts of the world. The viruses are primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a highly domesticated mosquito species that is notoriously difficult to control. When transinfected into Ae. aegypti, the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia has(More)
INTRODUCTION Dengue is one of the most widespread mosquito-borne diseases in the world. The causative agent, dengue virus (DENV), is primarily transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, a species that has proved difficult to control using conventional methods. The discovery that A. aegypti transinfected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia showed limited DENV(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe an epidemic of dengue type 3 that occurred in far north Queensland in 1997-1999 and its influence on the further development of dengue prevention and control strategies. DESIGN Epidemiological and laboratory investigation of cases, entomological surveys and phylogenetic analysis of dengue virus isolates. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES(More)
After Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus emerged in the Torres Strait in Australia in 1995, investigations were initiated into the origin of the incursion. New Guinea was considered the most likely source, given its proximity to islands of the Torres Strait. Almost 400,000 adult mosquitoes were processed for virus isolation from 26 locations in the Western(More)
The development of single, sensitive, fluorogenic reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (TaqMan) assays were required for the rapid and specific detection of three encephalitic viruses found in the Australasian region, namely; Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), and Kunjin virus (KUNV). Primers and a(More)
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) represent a global public health problem, with dengue viruses causing millions of infections annually, while emerging arboviruses, such as West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and chikungunya viruses have dramatically expanded their geographical ranges. Surveillance of arboviruses provides vital data regarding their(More)