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We have identified a member of the VEGF family by computer-based homology searching and have designated it VEGF-D. VEGF-D is most closely related to VEGF-C by virtue of the presence of N- and C-terminal extensions that are not found in other VEGF family members. In adult human tissues, VEGF-D mRNA is most abundant in heart, lung, skeletal muscle, colon, and(More)
Binding of interferons IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma to their cell surface receptors promptly induces tyrosine phosphorylation of latent cytoplasmic transcriptional activators (or Stat proteins, for signal transducers and activators of transcription). Interferon-alpha activates both Stat91 (M(r) 91,000; ref. 1) and Stat113 (M(r) 113,000; ref. 2) whereas IFN-gamma(More)
  • A F Wilks
  • 1989
The pivotal role that protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play in the growth regulation of eukaryotic cells is manifest in the frequent appearance of members of the PTK family as growth factor receptors or as the transforming agents of acutely transforming retroviruses. A feature common to all members of the PTK family is a highly conserved catalytic domain(More)
Secondary palate formation is a complex process that is frequently disturbed in mammals, resulting in the birth defect cleft palate. Gene targeting has identified components of cytokine/growth factor signalling systems such as Tgf-alpha/Egfr, Eph receptors B2 and B3 (Ephb2 and Ephb3, respectively), Tgf-beta2, Tgf-beta3 and activin-betaA (ref. 3) as(More)
The protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are a burgeoning family of proteins, each of which bears a conserved domain of 250 to 300 amino acids capable of phosphorylating substrate proteins on tyrosine residues. We recently exploited the existence of two highly conserved sequence elements within the catalytic domain to generate PTK-specific degenerate(More)
The embryonic neuroepithelium gives rise to the components of the central nervous system in the mature animal. To study the early development of the murine central nervous system we have sought to isolate growth factor receptors from the neuroepithelium of the neural tube of 10-day-old mouse embryos. Because many growth factor receptors are members of the(More)
Interleukin-6 (IL-6), leukemia inhibitory factor, oncostatin M, interleukin-11, and ciliary neurotrophic factor bind to receptor complexes that share the signal transducer gp130. Upon binding, the ligands rapidly activate DNA binding of acute-phase response factor (APRF), a protein antigenically related to the p91 subunit of the interferon-stimulated gene(More)
Transcription factors of the STAT family are required for cellular responses to multiple signaling molecules. After ligand binding-induced activation of cognate receptors, STAT proteins are phosphorylated, hetero- or homodimerize, and translocate to the nucleus. Subsequent STAT binding to specific DNA elements in the promoters of signal-responsive genes(More)
Loss of DCC gene expression has now been demonstrated in a wide variety of metastatic cancers. Here we present the nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid sequence of mouse DCC. Mouse and human DCC share 96% identity at the amino acid level. Analysis of DCC mRNA expression throughout the mid and late stages of gestation in the mouse, demonstrated that(More)
By using the polymerase chain reaction with degenerate oligonucleotides based on highly conserved motifs held in common between all members of the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) family, a PTK-related sequence was isolated from murine peritoneal macrophage cDNA. Full-length clones have been isolated that encompass the entire coding region of the mRNA, and the(More)