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We have identified a member of the VEGF family by computer-based homology searching and have designated it VEGF-D. VEGF-D is most closely related to VEGF-C by virtue of the presence of N- and C-terminal extensions that are not found in other VEGF family members. In adult human tissues, VEGF-D mRNA is most abundant in heart, lung, skeletal muscle, colon, and(More)
Secondary palate formation is a complex process that is frequently disturbed in mammals, resulting in the birth defect cleft palate. Gene targeting has identified components of cytokine/growth factor signalling systems such as Tgf-alpha/Egfr, Eph receptors B2 and B3 (Ephb2 and Ephb3, respectively), Tgf-beta2, Tgf-beta3 and activin-betaA (ref. 3) as(More)
Binding of interferons IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma to their cell surface receptors promptly induces tyrosine phosphorylation of latent cytoplasmic transcriptional activators (or Stat proteins, for signal transducers and activators of transcription). Interferon-alpha activates both Stat91 (M(r) 91,000; ref. 1) and Stat113 (M(r) 113,000; ref. 2) whereas IFN-gamma(More)
  • A F Wilks
  • 1989
The pivotal role that protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play in the growth regulation of eukaryotic cells is manifest in the frequent appearance of members of the PTK family as growth factor receptors or as the transforming agents of acutely transforming retroviruses. A feature common to all members of the PTK family is a highly conserved catalytic domain(More)
Transcription factors of the STAT family are required for cellular responses to multiple signaling molecules. After ligand binding-induced activation of cognate receptors, STAT proteins are phosphorylated, hetero- or homodimerize, and translocate to the nucleus. Subsequent STAT binding to specific DNA elements in the promoters of signal-responsive genes(More)
The protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are a burgeoning family of proteins, each of which bears a conserved domain of 250 to 300 amino acids capable of phosphorylating substrate proteins on tyrosine residues. We recently exploited the existence of two highly conserved sequence elements within the catalytic domain to generate PTK-specific degenerate(More)
Members of the JAK family of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) proteins are required for the transmission of signals from a variety of cell surface receptors, particularly those of the cytokine receptor family. JAK function has been implicated in hematopoiesis and regulation of the immune system, and recent data suggest that the vertebrate JAK2 gene may play a(More)
To gain a better understanding of the role of DCC and Neogenin in neural and nonneural tissues during vertebrate development we have carried out in situ hybridization studies to determine their expression patterns throughout the mid to late stages of mouse embryogenesis. This analysis revealed striking contrasts in both the spatial and temporal expression(More)
CSF-1 regulates macrophage differentiation, survival, and function, and is an attractive therapeutic target for chronic inflammation and malignant diseases. Here we describe the effects of a potent and selective inhibitor of CSF-1R-CYC10268-on CSF-1R-dependent signaling. In in vitro kinase assays, CYC10268 was active in the low nanomolar range and showed(More)
We have determined the nucleotide sequence of a cDNA encoding a protein kinase that is closely related to the enzyme encoded by the Drosophila melanogaster mutant polo and that we have designated Plk (polo-like kinase). Plk is also related to the products of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle gene MSD2 (CDC5) and the recently described early growth(More)