Andrew E. Switala

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Autism is characterized by qualitative abnormalities in behavior and higher order cognitive functions. Minicolumnar irregularities observed in autism provide a neurologically sound localization to observed clinical and anatomical abnormalities. This study corroborates the initial reports of a minicolumnopathy in autism within an independent sample. The(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether differences exist in the configuration of minicolumns between the brains of autistic and control patients. BACKGROUND Autism is a severe and pervasive developmental disturbance of childhood characterized by disturbances in both social interactions and communication, as well as stereotyped patterns of interests, activities,(More)
Gross analyses of large brain areas, as in MRI studies of macroanatomical structures, average subtle alterations in small regions, inadvertently missing significant anomalies. We developed a computerized imaging program to microscopically examine minicolumns and used it to study Nissl-stained slides of normal human, chimpanzee, and rhesus monkey brains in a(More)
Although neuropathologic studies have centered on small samples, it is accepted that brains of autistic individuals tend to be large, on average. Knowledge regarding the cause of this macrocephaly is limited. Postmortem studies reveal little in terms of cortical dysplasia. Some of these studies suggest increased cell-packing density in subcortical(More)
Our study performed a quantitative investigation of minicolumns in the planum temporale (PT) of human, chimpanzee, and rhesus monkey brains. This analysis distinguished minicolumns in the human cortex from those of the other nonhuman primates. Human cell columns are larger, contain more neuropil space, and pack more cells into the core area of the column(More)
AIM To investigate the cytoarchitectural basis of asymmetries in human auditory cortex. Minicolumn spacing and number, and regional cortical volume and surface area were measured in the primary auditory region (Heschl's gyrus, HG) and posterior auditory association region (planum temporale, PT) in 17 neurologically normal adults (10 female, seven male). PT(More)
Asperger's disorder or syndrome is characterized by impaired social interaction, normal intelligence, and adequate language skills in the areas of grammar and vocabulary. The symptoms are pervasive in nature and usually manifested in childhood. Despite the gravity and chronicity of the condition, the medical literature remains sparse and offers no(More)
We present a quantified imaging method that describes the cell column in mammalian cortex. The minicolumn is an ideal template with which to examine cortical organization because it is a basic unit of function, complete in itself, which interacts with adjacent and distance columns to form more complex levels of organization. The subtle details of columnar(More)
Radially oriented ensembles of neurons and their projections, termed minicolumns, are hypothesized to be the basic microcircuit of mammalian cerebral cortex. Minicolumns can be divided into a core and a peripheral neuropil space compartment. The core of minicolumns is constrained by the migratory path of pyramidal cells and their attendant radially oriented(More)