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Mixtures of polyomaviruses can be present in the central nervous system, the gastrointestinal tract, the genitourinary tract, blood, and urban sewage. We have developed 12 primer/probe sets (four per virus) for real-time, quantitative PCR assays (TaqMan) that can specifically detect BKV, JCV, and SV40 genomes present in mixtures of these viruses. The(More)
The strong weak truth table (sw) reducibility was suggested by Downey, Hirschfeldt, and LaForte as a measure of relative random-ness, alternative to the Solovay reducibility. It also occurs naturally in proofs in classical computability theory as well as in the recent work of Soare, Nabutovsky and Weinberger on applications of computability to differential(More)
Complementary strand-specific adenovirus DNA of full length or from endonuclease BamHI fragments was used as a probe to estimate the fractional representation and abundance of viral sequences in five hamster cell lines (Ad2HE1-5) transformed with UV-inactivated adenovirus type 2. The fraction of the viral genome present in the five transformed cell lines(More)
The mechanisms by which cells spontaneously immortalized in tissue culture develop the capacity to form tumors in vivo likely embody fundamental processes in neoplastic development. The evolution of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells from presumptively normal kidney cells to immortalized cells that become tumorigenic represents an example of neoplastic(More)
Three SV40 escape mutants were identified by selection in the presence of monoclonal antibodies with neutralizing activity. The VP1 amino acid alterations in these mutants were: (1) K73-->E (in loop BC); (2) D77-->E (in loop BC); (3) K171-->R (in loop EF); and (4) Q175-->H (in loop EF). These residues are clustered in close proximity to each other on the(More)
Adenovirus type 2 (Ad2)-transformed hamster and rat cells are susceptible to lysis by natural killer (NK) cells from the host of origin and are nontumorigenic in immunocompetent hamsters and rats, respectively. These NK-cell-susceptible, virus-transformed cells are, however, highly tumorigenic in athymic (nude) mice--animals with intact NK-cell responses.(More)
We performed experiments to test the suitability of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) as an experimental model for BK virus (BKV) and simian virus 40 (SV40) infection. Four squirrel monkeys received intravenous inoculation with BKV Gardner strain, and six squirrel monkeys received intravenous inoculation with SV40 777 strain. Eight of 10 monkeys received(More)
Mammalian cells transformed by nononcogenic human adenoviruses exhibit high susceptibility to destruction by host mononuclear inflammatory cells. We have analyzed the viral gene regulation of the susceptibility of transformed cells to lysis by natural killer cells and activated macrophages. Comparisons of target cell lines transformed by overlapping(More)
The manner in which oncogenes influence tumorigenicity beyond their ability to immortalize cells is uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that, in addition to subverting cellular growth controls, oncogenes can actively determine tumor-inducing capacity by affecting neoplastic cell susceptibility to destruction by the host cellular immune response. The(More)