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The family Potyviridae includes >30% of known plant virus species, many of which are of great agricultural significance. These viruses have a positive sense RNA genome that is approximately 10 kb long and contains a single long ORF. The ORF is translated into a large polyprotein, which is cleaved into approximately 10 mature proteins. We report the(More)
The majority of introns in gene transcripts are found within the coding sequences (CDSs). A small but significant fraction of introns are also found to reside within the untranslated regions (5'UTRs and 3'UTRs) of expressed sequences. Alignment of the whole genome and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has identified(More)
This paper describes the design and comparative evaluation of three methods that aid the acquisition of small targets. The first method, called 'bubble targets', increases the effective width of the target as the pointer approaches. The second method uses a form of 'stickyness' to restrict movement as the pointer passes over an object. In the third method,(More)
There has been a dramatic increase in the number of insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) discovered in the last decade. Historically, these viruses have generated limited interest due to their inability to infect vertebrate cells. This viewpoint has changed in recent years because some ISFs have been shown to enhance or suppress the replication of medically(More)
Flavivirus NS1 is a nonstructural protein involved in virus replication and regulation of the innate immune response. Interestingly, a larger NS1-related protein, NS1', is often detected during infection with the members of the Japanese encephalitis virus serogroup of flaviviruses. However, how NS1' is made and what role it performs in the viral life cycle(More)
The plant-infecting members of the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) have linear dsRNA genomes divided into 10 segments, two of which contain two substantial and non-overlapping ORFs, while the remaining eight are apparently monocistronic. However, one of these – namely segment 5 – contains a second long ORF (~200+ codons) that overlaps the 3' end of the(More)
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection leads to variable and imperfectly understood pathogenicity. We report that segment 3 of the virus contains a second open reading frame ("X-ORF"), accessed via ribosomal frameshifting. The frameshift product, termed PA-X, comprises the endonuclease domain of the viral PA protein with a C-terminal domain encoded by the X-ORF(More)
The recently developed ribosome profiling technique (Ribo-Seq) allows mapping of the locations of translating ribosomes on mRNAs with subcodon precision. When ribosome protected fragments (RPFs) are aligned to mRNA, a characteristic triplet periodicity pattern is revealed. We utilized the triplet periodicity of RPFs to develop a computational method for(More)
Detecting new coding sequences (CDSs) in viral genomes can be difficult for several reasons. The typically compact genomes often contain a number of overlapping coding and non-coding functional elements, which can result in unusual patterns of codon usage; conservation between related sequences can be difficult to interpret – especially within overlapping(More)
Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, Usutu and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses form a tight subgroup within the larger Flavivirus genus. These viruses utilize a single-polyprotein expression strategy, resulting in ~10 mature proteins. Plotting the conservation at synonymous sites along the polyprotein coding sequence reveals strong conservation peaks at the(More)