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This paper describes the design and comparative evaluation of three methods that aid the acquisition of small targets. The first method, called 'bubble targets', increases the effective width of the target as the pointer approaches. The second method uses a form of 'stickyness' to restrict movement as the pointer passes over an object. In the third method,(More)
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection leads to variable and imperfectly understood pathogenicity. We report that segment 3 of the virus contains a second open reading frame ("X-ORF"), accessed via ribosomal frameshifting. The frameshift product, termed PA-X, comprises the endonuclease domain of the viral PA protein with a C-terminal domain encoded by the X-ORF(More)
There has been a dramatic increase in the number of insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) discovered in the last decade. Historically, these viruses have generated limited interest due to their inability to infect vertebrate cells. This viewpoint has changed in recent years because some ISFs have been shown to enhance or suppress the replication of medically(More)
We investigated whether small RNA (sRNA) sequenced from field-collected mosquitoes and chironomids (Diptera) can be used as a proxy signature of viral prevalence within a range of species and viral groups, using sRNAs sequenced from wild-caught specimens, to inform total RNA deep sequencing of samples of particular interest. Using this strategy, we(More)
BACKGROUND Detecting new coding sequences (CDSs) in viral genomes can be difficult for several reasons. The typically compact genomes often contain a number of overlapping coding and non-coding functional elements, which can result in unusual patterns of codon usage; conservation between related sequences can be difficult to interpret--especially within(More)
BACKGROUND The genus Orbivirus includes several species that infect livestock - including Bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV). These viruses have linear dsRNA genomes divided into ten segments, all of which have previously been assumed to be monocistronic. RESULTS Bioinformatic evidence is presented for a short overlapping(More)
The plant-infecting members of the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) have linear dsRNA genomes divided into 10 segments, two of which contain two substantial and non-overlapping ORFs, while the remaining eight are apparently monocistronic. However, one of these - namely segment 5 - contains a second long ORF (approximately 200+ codons) that overlaps the(More)
Identification of the full complement of genes and other functional elements in any virus is crucial to fully understand its molecular biology and guide the development of effective control strategies. RNA viruses have compact multifunctional genomes that frequently contain overlapping genes and non-coding functional elements embedded within protein-coding(More)
Programmed ribosomal frameshifting is used in the expression of many virus genes and some cellular genes. In eukaryotic systems, the most well-characterized mechanism involves -1 tandem tRNA slippage on an X_XXY_YYZ motif. By contrast, the mechanisms involved in programmed +1 (or -2) slippage are more varied and often poorly characterized. Recently, a novel(More)
The sobemoviruses have one of the smallest of all known RNA virus genomes. ORF1 encodes P1 which plays a role in suppression of silencing and virus movement, ORFs 2a and 2b encode the replicational polyproteins P2a and P2ab, and ORF3 encodes the coat protein. Translation of ORF2a from the genomic RNA is dependent on a leaky scanning mechanism. We report the(More)