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The family Potyviridae includes >30% of known plant virus species, many of which are of great agricultural significance. These viruses have a positive sense RNA genome that is approximately 10 kb long and contains a single long ORF. The ORF is translated into a large polyprotein, which is cleaved into approximately 10 mature proteins. We report the(More)
This paper describes the design and comparative evaluation of three methods that aid the acquisition of small targets. The first method, called 'bubble targets', increases the effective width of the target as the pointer approaches. The second method uses a form of 'stickyness' to restrict movement as the pointer passes over an object. In the third method,(More)
Flavivirus NS1 is a nonstructural protein involved in virus replication and regulation of the innate immune response. Interestingly, a larger NS1-related protein, NS1', is often detected during infection with the members of the Japanese encephalitis virus serogroup of flaviviruses. However, how NS1' is made and what role it performs in the viral life cycle(More)
There has been a dramatic increase in the number of insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) discovered in the last decade. Historically, these viruses have generated limited interest due to their inability to infect vertebrate cells. This viewpoint has changed in recent years because some ISFs have been shown to enhance or suppress the replication of medically(More)
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection leads to variable and imperfectly understood pathogenicity. We report that segment 3 of the virus contains a second open reading frame ("X-ORF"), accessed via ribosomal frameshifting. The frameshift product, termed PA-X, comprises the endonuclease domain of the viral PA protein with a C-terminal domain encoded by the X-ORF(More)
Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, Usutu and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses form a tight subgroup within the larger Flavivirus genus. These viruses utilize a single-polyprotein expression strategy, resulting in ~10 mature proteins. Plotting the conservation at synonymous sites along the polyprotein coding sequence reveals strong conservation peaks at the(More)
The recently developed ribosome profiling technique (Ribo-Seq) allows mapping of the locations of translating ribosomes on mRNAs with subcodon precision. When ribosome protected fragments (RPFs) are aligned to mRNA, a characteristic triplet periodicity pattern is revealed. We utilized the triplet periodicity of RPFs to develop a computational method for(More)
The plant-infecting members of the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) have linear dsRNA genomes divided into 10 segments, two of which contain two substantial and non-overlapping ORFs, while the remaining eight are apparently monocistronic. However, one of these - namely segment 5 - contains a second long ORF (approximately 200+ codons) that overlaps the(More)
We investigated whether small RNA (sRNA) sequenced from field-collected mosquitoes and chironomids (Diptera) can be used as a proxy signature of viral prevalence within a range of species and viral groups, using sRNAs sequenced from wild-caught specimens, to inform total RNA deep sequencing of samples of particular interest. Using this strategy, we(More)
To generate the most diverse phylogenetic dataset for the flaviviruses to date, we determined the genomic sequences and phylogenetic relationships of 14 flaviviruses, of which 10 are primarily associated with Culex spp. mosquitoes. We analyze these data, in conjunction with a comprehensive collection of flavivirus genomes, to characterize flavivirus(More)