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  • Shelley Cook, Betty Y.-W. Chung, David Bass, Gregory Moureau, Shuoya Tang, Erica McAlister +8 others
  • 2013
We investigated whether small RNA (sRNA) sequenced from field-collected mosquitoes and chironomids (Diptera) can be used as a proxy signature of viral prevalence within a range of species and viral groups, using sRNAs sequenced from wild-caught specimens, to inform total RNA deep sequencing of samples of particular interest. Using this strategy, we(More)
BACKGROUND Detecting new coding sequences (CDSs) in viral genomes can be difficult for several reasons. The typically compact genomes often contain a number of overlapping coding and non-coding functional elements, which can result in unusual patterns of codon usage; conservation between related sequences can be difficult to interpret--especially within(More)
Viral protein synthesis is completely dependent upon the translational machinery of the host cell. However, many RNA virus transcripts have marked structural differences from cellular mRNAs that preclude canonical translation initiation, such as the absence of a 5' cap structure or the presence of highly structured 5'UTRs containing replication and/or(More)
In Sindbis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and related alphaviruses, the polymerase is translated as a fusion with other non-structural proteins via readthrough of a UGA stop codon. Surprisingly, earlier work reported that the signal for efficient readthrough comprises a single cytidine residue 3'-adjacent to the UGA. However, analysis of variability at(More)
  • Mourad Belhouchet, Fauziah Mohd Jaafar, Andrew E. Firth, Jonathan M. Grimes, Peter P. C. Mertens, Houssam Attoui
  • 2011
The genus Orbivirus includes both insect and tick-borne viruses. The orbivirus genome, composed of 10 segments of dsRNA, encodes 7 structural proteins (VP1-VP7) and 3 non-structural proteins (NS1-NS3). An open reading frame (ORF) that spans almost the entire length of genome segment-9 (Seg-9) encodes VP6 (the viral helicase). However, bioinformatic analysis(More)
In eukaryotes, it is generally assumed that translation initiation occurs at the AUG codon closest to the messenger RNA 5' cap. However, in certain cases, initiation can occur at codons differing from AUG by a single nucleotide, especially the codons CUG, UUG, GUG, ACG, AUA and AUU. While non-AUG initiation has been experimentally verified for a handful of(More)
'Recoding' is a term used to describe non-standard read-out of the genetic code, and encompasses such phenomena as programmed ribosomal frameshifting, stop codon readthrough, selenocysteine insertion and translational bypassing. Although only a small proportion of genes utilize recoding in protein synthesis, accurate annotation of 'recoded' genes lags far(More)
The arterivirus family (order Nidovirales) of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses includes porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus and equine arteritis virus (EAV). Their replicative enzymes are translated from their genomic RNA, while their seven structural proteins are encoded by a set of small, partially overlapping genes in the(More)
MOTIVATION Overlapping gene coding sequences (CDSs) are particularly common in viruses but also occur in more complex genomes. Detecting such genes with conventional gene-finding algorithms can be difficult for several reasons. If an overlapping CDS is on the same read-strand as a known CDS, then there may not be a distinct promoter or mRNA. Furthermore,(More)
  • Helen M. Wise, Edward C. Hutchinson, Brett W. Jagger, Amanda D. Stuart, Zi H. Kang, Nicole Robb +7 others
  • 2012
Segment 7 of influenza A virus produces up to four mRNAs. Unspliced transcripts encode M1, spliced mRNA2 encodes the M2 ion channel, while protein products from spliced mRNAs 3 and 4 have not previously been identified. The M2 protein plays important roles in virus entry and assembly, and is a target for antiviral drugs and vaccination. Surprisingly, M2 is(More)