Andrew Douglass

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Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a classical autoimmune liver disease for which effective immunomodulatory therapy is lacking. Here we perform meta-analyses of discovery data sets from genome-wide association studies of European subjects (n=2,764 cases and 10,475 controls) followed by validation genotyping in an independent cohort (n=3,716 cases and 4,261(More)
Illness scripts are knowledge structures composed of consequences, enabling conditions, and faults. The effects of illness script components--consequences and enabling conditions--and physician factors on referral decisions for gastrointestinal disorders were investigated. The hypothesis that consequences and enabling conditions increase the likelihood of(More)
Background/aims: The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is controversial. We have therefore studied the effect of induced hyperammonaemia in man. Patients and methods: 108 g of an amino acid mixture was given orally to 18 cirrhotics and 11 control subjects and changes in blood ammonia, EEG and plasma amino acids were observed. Results: Basal (39±6(More)
Resources associated with higher levels of NHS antidepressant prescribing in England in 2002 compared with 1991 could have been used to deliver cognitive behaviour therapy to 1.54 million patients,more than a third of adults with depression or mixed anxiety depression. The recent rise in antidepressant prescribing is likely to be due to increased awareness(More)
Hepatic encephalopathy is a frequent complication of cirrhosis. Abnormalities of5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and its metabolites are recognized and may contribute to its pathogenesis. We therefore studied the effect of an oral tryptophan load (6–18 g) upon psychometric test scores and analyzed EEG's in alcoholic cirrhotic patients. Eight patients had had(More)
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