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We compare the effects of transactional, institutional and experience influences on the ownership strategies of Japanese investors. Our theoretical development suggests that the equity position of a foreign investor should increase as the specificity of the assets transferred to the foreign affiliate increases, but a lower equity position should be assumed(More)
Although it is established that firms sometimes expand abroad to augment their capabilities, previous studies have generally focused on technological determinants of foreign expansion. We analyze capability-seeking aspects of foreign direct investment by examining the relationship between upstream (technological) and downstream (marketing) capabilities and(More)
Cross-national variation in institutional environments adds uncertainty to foreign operations, which in turn affects international strategy decisions such as when to enter a market, the entry mode used if entering, and the performance of foreign entries. Although all firms are exposed to the influence of a host country's institutional environment, firms(More)
This study examines 2,933 cases of Japanese investment in 27 provinces and regions in China to identify the role that policy determinants had in influencing the sub-national location decision of Japanese firms in China. The empirical results show that the Special Economic Zones (SEZs) and Opening Coastal Cities (OCCs) were a successful policy instrument(More)
This paper combines neoinstitutional theory and research on political institutions to explain the process of organizational entry into new geographic markets. We extend neoinstitutional theory's proposition that prior decisions and actions by other organizations provide legitimization and information to a decision marked by uncertainty. We show this effect(More)
This study jointly examines the effects of organizational capabilities and public and private expropriation hazards on the level of equity ownership chosen for foreign subsidiaries in emerging markets. Specifically, we explore the mechanisms by which 660 Japanese multinational corporations draw upon capabilities developed via industry-specific,(More)
To view the Editors guidelines for Special Issues, please click here. These instructions are now available in Chinese The Journal of Management Studies was established in 1963 to publish innovative, novel and high-quality papers that advance conceptual and empirical knowledge and address practice in the area of management. By 'advance conceptual and(More)
" What determines the scope of the firm? " is a fundamental question in strategy research. We argue that a new generation of diversification research needs to address the extended question: What determines the scope of the firm—both product and geographic— over time and around the world? This article has three goals: (1) to increase awareness among(More)
We extend the stages model of internationalization to incorporate a sophisticated consideration of temporal and cross-national variation in the uncertainty of the policy environment. Using a sample of 6465 international expansions of 665 Japanese manufacturing firms in 49 countries, we develop arguments from internationalization and bargaining power(More)