Andrew Dayton

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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral protein R (Vpr) is required for viral pathogenesis and has been implicated in T-cell apoptosis through its activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9 and perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential. To understand better Vpr-mitochondria interaction, we report here the identification of antiapoptotic mitochondrial(More)
The envelope of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) plays a central role in the process of virus entry into the host cell and in the cytopathicity of the virus for lymphocytes bearing the CD4 molecule. Mutations that affect the ability of the envelope glycoprotein to form syncytia in CD4+ cells can be divided into five groups: those that(More)
The trans-activator gene (tat-III) of the human T lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III/LAV) is shown to regulate positively the expression of viral proteins. Viruses in which the tat-III gene is deleted are incapable of prolific replication and do not demonstrate cytopathic effects in T4+ cell lines. These defects can be fully complemented in cell lines(More)
Expression of high levels of the structural proteins of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires the presence of two regulatory genes, the trans-activator (tat), and the regulator of virion protein expression (rev. previously called art or trs). The experiments described here show that expression of virion proteins is dependent upon a small(More)
The significance and location of sequence-specific information in the CAR/RRE, the target sequence for the Rev protein of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), have been controversial. We present here a comprehensive experimental and computational approach combining mutational analysis, phylogenetic comparison, and thermodynamic structure(More)
BACKGROUND West Nile virus (WNV) transmission by transfusion was documented in 2002. Approximately 80 percent of WNV infections are asymptomatic and 1 percent develop severe neurological illness. In animals, Langerhans-dendritic cells support initial viral replication, followed by replication in lymphoid tissues and dissemination to organs and possibly to(More)
Natural Killer (NK) cells are a crucial component of the host innate immune system with anti-viral and anti-cancer properties. However, the role of NK cells in West Nile virus (WNV) infection is controversial, with reported effects ranging from active suppression of virus to no effect at all. It was previously shown that K562-mb15-41BBL (K562D2) cells,(More)
Evidence is provided for the existence of a seventh gene in the genome of human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus. The gene is necessary for replication and acts post-transcriptionally to relieve negative regulation of the messenger RNA for the virion capsid and envelope proteins. These observations suggest mechanisms for(More)
As part of a program to develop a Dengue virus vaccine which avoids the deleterious effects of antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection mediated by antibodies to Dengue virus structural proteins, we have begun to investigate the possibility of designing Dengue vaccines based on non-structural proteins. Dengue constructs which lack major structural(More)
The induction of apoptosis in T cells by bystander cells has been repeatedly implicated as a mechanism contributing to the T cell depletion seen in HIV infection. It has been shown that apoptosis could be induced in T cells from asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals in a Fas-independent, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-dependent manner if the(More)