Andrew Dayton

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Evidence is provided for the existence of a seventh gene in the genome of human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus. The gene is necessary for replication and acts post-transcriptionally to relieve negative regulation of the messenger RNA for the virion capsid and envelope proteins. These observations suggest mechanisms for(More)
The envelope of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) plays a central role in the process of virus entry into the host cell and in the cytopathicity of the virus for lymphocytes bearing the CD4 molecule. Mutations that affect the ability of the envelope glycoprotein to form syncytia in CD4+ cells can be divided into five groups: those that(More)
The trans-activator gene (tat-III) of the human T lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III/LAV) is shown to regulate positively the expression of viral proteins. Viruses in which the tat-III gene is deleted are incapable of prolific replication and do not demonstrate cytopathic effects in T4+ cell lines. These defects can be fully complemented in cell lines(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral protein R (Vpr) is required for viral pathogenesis and has been implicated in T-cell apoptosis through its activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9 and perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential. To understand better Vpr-mitochondria interaction, we report here the identification of antiapoptotic mitochondrial(More)
Expression of high levels of the structural proteins of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires the presence of the protein encoded by the rev open reading frame (Rev) and its associated target sequence CAR (cis anti-repression sequence) which is present in the env region of viral RNA. Extensive mutagenesis demonstrated that CAR has a(More)
The level of synthesis of viral proteins and heterologous proteins under the control of long terminal repeat sequences of human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III or LAV) increases dramatically in cells that constitutively express the HTLV-III trans-activator protein. Increased levels of protein synthesis occur without a comparable increase in the(More)
Nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of RNA is one of many cellular pathways whose illumination has progressed hand in hand with understanding of retroviral mechanisms. A recent paper in Cell reports the involvement of an RNA helicase in the pathway by which HIV exports partially spliced and unspliced RNA out of the nucleus. This suggests the ubiquity of RNA(More)
BACKGROUND Natural Killer (NK) cells are a crucial component of the host innate immune system with anti-viral and anti-cancer properties. However, the role of NK cells in West Nile virus (WNV) infection is controversial, with reported effects ranging from active suppression of virus to no effect at all. It was previously shown that K562-mb15-41BBL (K562D2)(More)
BACKGROUND As part of a program to develop a Dengue virus vaccine which avoids the deleterious effects of antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection mediated by antibodies to Dengue virus structural proteins, we have begun to investigate the possibility of designing Dengue vaccines based on non-structural proteins. RESULTS Dengue constructs which(More)
BACKGROUND Female hormones are known to play an important role in predisposition for many infectious diseases. Recent work suggests there are gender effects in HIV/AIDS progression. Here we ask whether the sex steroid hormone beta-estradiol affects the replication of HIV-1 or the efficacy of a common anti-retroviral drug, Stavudine (D4T). RESULTS Human(More)