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BACKGROUND It is unclear whether decompressive craniectomy improves the functional outcome in patients with severe traumatic brain injury and refractory raised intracranial pressure. METHODS From December 2002 through April 2010, we randomly assigned 155 adults with severe diffuse traumatic brain injury and intracranial hypertension that was refractory to(More)
CONTEXT Low-tidal-volume ventilation reduces mortality in critically ill patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Instituting additional strategies to open collapsed lung tissue may further reduce mortality. OBJECTIVE To compare an established low-tidal-volume ventilation strategy with an experimental strategy based on the(More)
BACKGROUND Planning for the treatment of infection with the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus through health care systems in developed countries during winter in the Northern Hemisphere is hampered by a lack of information from similar health care systems. METHODS We conducted an inception-cohort study in all Australian and New Zealand intensive care(More)
CONTEXT The novel influenza A(H1N1) pandemic affected Australia and New Zealand during the 2009 southern hemisphere winter. It caused an epidemic of critical illness and some patients developed severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). OBJECTIVES To describe the characteristics of(More)
RATIONALE Baseline characteristics and management have changed over time in patients requiring mechanical ventilation; however, the impact of these changes on patient outcomes is unclear. OBJECTIVES To estimate whether mortality in mechanically ventilated patients has changed over time. METHODS Prospective cohort studies conducted in 1998, 2004, and(More)
OBJECTIVE Critically ill patients often develop large gastric residual volumes during nasogastric feeding as a result of poor gastroduodenal motility. Nasojejunal feeding may decrease the severity of this complication. The aim of this study was to determine whether nasojejunal feeding improved tolerance of enteral nutrition by reducing gastric residual(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the serum cytokine profiles of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and varying clinical presentations relative to healthy, able-bodied, age-matched control subjects. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Clinical research unit. PARTICIPANTS People with SCI (N=56) and different clinical presentations, and healthy, able-bodied,(More)
We describe the toxicity and efficacy of donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) given to 81 patients (median age, 50 years) after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) transplantations performed at 16 centers in the United Kingdom. The diseases treated included non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; n = 29), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML; n = 12), myeloma (n = 11), acute(More)
IMPORTANCE Systematic reviews suggest adult patients in intensive care units (ICUs) with relative contraindications to early enteral nutrition (EN) may benefit from parenteral nutrition (PN) provided within 24 hours of ICU admission. OBJECTIVE To determine whether providing early PN to critically ill adults with relative contraindications to early EN(More)
Oxycodone is widely used for the treatment of cancer pain, but little is known of its pharmacokinetics in cancer pain patients. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between ordinary patient characteristics and serum concentrations of oxycodone and the ratios noroxycodone or oxymorphone/oxycodone in cancer patients. Four hundred and(More)