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Half of the microbial cells in the Earth's oceans are found in sediments. Many of these cells are members of the Archaea, single-celled prokaryotes in a domain of life separate from Bacteria and Eukaryota. However, most of these archaea lack cultured representatives, leaving their physiologies and placement on the tree of life uncertain. Here we show that(More)
Heterotrophic microbial communities cycle nearly half of net primary productivity in the ocean, and play a particularly important role in transformations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The specific means by which these communities mediate the transformations of organic carbon are largely unknown, since the vast majority of marine bacteria have not been(More)
The ratios of d- versus l-amino acids can be used to infer the sources and composition of sedimentary organic matter. Such inferences, however, rely on knowing the rates at which amino acids in sedimentary organic matter racemize abiotically between the d- and the l-forms. Based on a heating experiment, we report kinetic parameters for racemization of(More)
The microbial community composition of polar and temperate ocean waters differs substantially, but the potential functional consequences of these differences are largely unexplored. We measured bacterial production, glucose metabolism, and the abilities of microbial communities to hydrolyze a range of polysaccharides in an Arctic fjord of Svalbard(More)
Polar pelagic microbial communities access a narrower range of polysaccharide substrates than communities at lower latitudes. For example, the glucose-containing polysaccharide pullulan is typically not hydrolyzed in fjord waters of Svalbard, even though pullulan is rapidly hydrolyzed in sediments from Svalbard fjords, other polysaccharides are hydrolyzed(More)
The interactions between heterotrophic microbes and high-molecular-weight (HMW) dissolved organic carbon in estuaries are complex and poorly understood. This study examined the coupling between hydrolysis of HMW carbohydrates (polysaccharides) and uptake of monosaccharides by bacterioplankton along a salinity gradient in the Chesapeake Bay water column and(More)
The 'priming effect', in which addition of labile carbon and/or nutrients changes remineralization rates of recalcitrant organic matter, has been intensively studied in soils, but is less well-documented in aquatic systems. We investigated the extent to which additions of nutrients or labile organic carbon could influence remineralization rates of(More)
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