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Half of the microbial cells in the Earth's oceans are found in sediments. Many of these cells are members of the Archaea, single-celled prokaryotes in a domain of life separate from Bacteria and Eukaryota. However, most of these archaea lack cultured representatives, leaving their physiologies and placement on the tree of life uncertain. Here we show that(More)
There is no universally accepted method to quantify bacteria and archaea in seawater and marine sediments, and different methods have produced conflicting results with the same samples. To identify best practices, we compiled data from 65 studies, plus our own measurements, in which bacteria and archaea were quantified with fluorescent in situ hybridization(More)
Heterotrophic microbial communities cycle nearly half of net primary productivity in the ocean, and play a particularly important role in transformations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The specific means by which these communities mediate the transformations of organic carbon are largely unknown, since the vast majority of marine bacteria have not been(More)
In Arctic marine bacterial communities, members of the phylum Verrucomicrobia are consistently detected, although not typically abundant, in 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and pyrotag surveys of the marine water column and in sediments. In an Arctic fjord (Smeerenburgfjord) of Svalbard, members of the Verrucomicrobia, together with Flavobacteria and smaller(More)
The ratios of d- versus l-amino acids can be used to infer the sources and composition of sedimentary organic matter. Such inferences, however, rely on knowing the rates at which amino acids in sedimentary organic matter racemize abiotically between the d- and the l-forms. Based on a heating experiment, we report kinetic parameters for racemization of(More)
The microbial community composition of polar and temperate ocean waters differs substantially, but the potential functional consequences of these differences are largely unexplored. We measured bacterial production, glucose metabolism, and the abilities of microbial communities to hydrolyze a range of polysaccharides in an Arctic fjord of Svalbard(More)
The interactions between heterotrophic microbes and high-molecular-weight (HMW) dissolved organic carbon in estuaries are complex and poorly understood. This study examined the coupling between hydrolysis of HMW carbohydrates (polysaccharides) and uptake of monosaccharides by bacterioplankton along a salinity gradient in the Chesapeake Bay water column and(More)
Marine sediments host a large population of diverse, heterotrophic, uncultured microorganisms with unknown physiologies that control carbon flow through organic matter decomposition. Recently, single-cell genomics uncovered new key players in these processes, such as the miscellaneous crenarchaeotal group. These widespread archaea encode putative intra- and(More)
Polar pelagic microbial communities access a narrower range of polysaccharide substrates than communities at lower latitudes. For example, the glucose-containing polysaccharide pullulan is typically not hydrolyzed in fjord waters of Svalbard, even though pullulan is rapidly hydrolyzed in sediments from Svalbard fjords, other polysaccharides are hydrolyzed(More)