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A positive relationship between the consumption of sweetened dietary substances (e.g. saccharin and sucrose) and drug abuse has been reported in both the human and other animal literature. The proposed genetic contribution to this relationship has been based on evidence from behavioral, neurobiological, and linkage studies in heterogeneous and homogeneous(More)
The nature of spontaneous mutations, including their rate, distribution across the genome, and fitness consequences, is of central importance to biology. However, the low rate of mutation has made it difficult to study spontaneous mutagenesis, and few studies have directly addressed these questions. Here, we present a direct estimate of the mutation rate(More)
Withdrawal from orally self-administered phencyclidine (PCP) has been shown to alter operant baselines of food-maintained responding. The goal of the present study was to determine whether there are sex differences in these alterations. Seven female and 7 male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were given concurrent access to PCP and water under fixed ratio(More)
Host-parasite coevolution is a key driver of biological diversity and parasite virulence, but its effects depend on the nature of coevolutionary dynamics over time. We used phenotypic data from coevolving populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and parasitic phage SBW25Φ2, and genetic data from the phage tail fibre gene (implicated in(More)
RATIONALE Rats selectively bred for high saccharin (HiS) intake consume more alcohol, acquire intravenous (i.v.) cocaine self-administration more rapidly, and show more dysregulated patterns of cocaine self-administration than their low saccharin-consuming (LoS) counterparts. OBJECTIVES The purpose of the present study was to determine whether HiS and LoS(More)
Describing the process of spontaneous mutation is fundamental for understanding the genetic basis of disease, the threat posed by declining population size in conservation biology, and much of evolutionary biology. Directly studying spontaneous mutation has been difficult, however, because new mutations are rare. Mutation accumulation (MA) experiments(More)
Evidence is accumulating that the etiology, epidemiology, consequences and mechanisms that underlie drug abuse are different in males and females. In this review, we present examples of sex differences in all phases of drug abuse, including acquisition, steady-state maintenance, escalation, dysregulation, withdrawal, relapse and treatment. Most reported(More)
RATIONALE Rats selectively bred for high intake of a sweet saccharin solution (HiS) consume more ethanol than their low-saccharin intake (LoS) counterparts. The HiS phenotype may be a predictor of abuse of other drugs via other routes of administration. OBJECTIVE HiS and LoS, male and female rats were tested for acquisition of IV cocaine and heroin(More)
Previous research in rats indicates that delay discounting for food, a model of impulsivity, predicted the rate of acquisition of cocaine self-administration. In other studies, rats bred for high saccharin intake (HiS) acquired cocaine self-administration at higher rates than those with low saccharin intake (LoS), and female (F) rats acquired cocaine(More)