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Responses to head tilt were recorded from vestibular neurons in and around the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN) of the decerebrate cat. Each animal had all six semicircular canals rendered nonfunctional by a plugging procedure. Each cell was studied by slowly tilting the cat, using one or both of two paradigms. In the first method, sinusoidal tilts (0.05 or(More)
In this paper, we present initial findings from the study of a digital photo-sharing website: Flickr.com. In particular, we argue that Flickr.com appears to support-for some people-a different set of photography practices, socialization styles, and perspectives on privacy that are unlike those described in previous research on consumer and amateur(More)
Motion sickness can occur when sensory inputs regarding body position in space are contradictory or are different from those predicted from experience. Signals from the vestibular system are essential for triggering motion sickness. The evolutionary significance of this malady is unclear, although it may simply represent the aberrant activation of(More)
The area postrema (AP) has been implicated as a chemoreceptor trigger zone for vomiting (emesis) for over 40 years. The AP is located on the dorsal surface of the medulla oblongata at the caudal end of the fourth ventricle. It is one of the so-called circumventricular organs that serve as an interface between the brain parenchyma and the cerebrospinal fluid(More)
Control of abdominal musculature by brain stem respiratory neurons was studied in decerebrate unanesthetized cats by determining 1) which brain stem respiratory neurons could be antidromically activated from the lumbar cord, from which the abdominal muscles receive part of their innervation, and 2) if lumbar-projecting respiratory neurons make monosynaptic(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine (1) whether the nucleus retroambigualis (NRA) plays an essential role in periaqueductal gray (PAG)-induced vocalization and (2) which NRA neurons are involved in the projection from the PAG to laryngeal motoneurons. Bilateral injections of the neurotoxin kainic acid into the NRA in decerebrate cats abolished(More)
The responses of central vestibular neurons in the decerebrate cat subjected to whole-body tilt were examined as a function both of stimulus orientation (with respect to the cat's head) and frequency, with the aim of understanding the neural processing responsible for producing the observed response patterns. Responses to whole-body tilt were recorded from(More)
The fibrous collagens are ubiquitous in animals and form the structural basis of all mammalian connective tissues, including those of the heart, vasculature, skin, cornea, bones, and tendons. However, in comparison with what is known of their production, turnover and physiological structure, very little is understood regarding the three-dimensional(More)
Pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection is associated with enteropathy, which likely contributes to AIDS progression. To identify candidate etiologies for AIDS enteropathy, we used next-generation sequencing to define the enteric virome during SIV infection in nonhuman primates. Pathogenic, but not nonpathogenic, SIV infection was(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) has become a popular tool for downregulating specific gene expression in many species, including mammalian cells [Novina, C. D., and Sharp, P. A. (2004) The RNAi revolution, Nature 430, 161-164]. Synthetic double-stranded RNA sequences (siRNA) of 21-23 nucleotides have been shown in particular to have the potential to silence(More)