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Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta)-converting enzyme cleaves the IL-1 beta precursor to mature IL-1 beta, an important mediator of inflammation. The identification of the enzyme as a unique cysteine protease and the design of potent peptide aldehyde inhibitors are described. Purification and cloning of the complementary DNA indicates that IL-1 beta-converting(More)
Growth hormone release is under tight control by two hypothalamic hormones: growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin. In addition, synthetic growth hormone secretagogues have also been shown to regulate growth hormone release through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), suggesting the existence of an additional physiological regulator(More)
Small synthetic molecules termed growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) act on the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus to stimulate and amplify pulsatile growth hormone (GH) release. A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor (GPC-R) of the pituitary and arcuate ventro-medial and infundibular hypothalamus of swine and humans was cloned(More)
Neuromedin U (NMU) is a neuropeptide with potent activity on smooth muscle which was isolated first from porcine spinal cord and later from other species. It is widely distributed in the gut and central nervous system. Peripheral activities of NMU include stimulation of smooth muscle, increase of blood pressure, alteration of ion transport in the gut,(More)
Interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) is a cysteine protease in monocytes that is essential for the proteolytic activation of interleukin-1 beta, an important mediator of inflammation. Peptide (acyloxy)methyl ketones designed with the appropriate peptide recognition sequence (Ac-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-CH2-OC(O)Ar) are potent, competitive, irreversible(More)
Inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), a key regulator of the actions of incretin hormones, exert antihyperglycemic effects in type 2 diabetic patients. A major unanswered question concerns the potential ability of DPP-4 inhibition to have beneficial disease-modifying effects, specifically to attenuate loss of pancreatic beta-cell mass and function.(More)
GH release is thought to occur under the reciprocal regulation of two hypothalamic peptides, GH releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin, via their engagement with specific cell surface receptors on the anterior pituitary somatotroph. In addition, GH-releasing peptides, such as GHRP-6 and the nonpeptide mimetics, L-692,429 and MK-0677, stimulate GH release(More)
We reported previously that human interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) is regulated by the CrmA serpin encoded by cowpox virus. We now report the mechanism and kinetics of this unusual inhibition of a cysteine proteinase by a member of the serpin superfamily previously thought to inhibit serine proteinase only. CrmA possesses several characteristics(More)
OBJECTIVE Acute activation of G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) by free fatty acids (FFAs) or synthetic GPR40 agonists enhances insulin secretion. However, it is still a matter of debate whether activation of GPR40 would be beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, since chronic exposure to FFAs impairs islet function. We sought to evaluate the(More)