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Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta)-converting enzyme cleaves the IL-1 beta precursor to mature IL-1 beta, an important mediator of inflammation. The identification of the enzyme as a unique cysteine protease and the design of potent peptide aldehyde inhibitors are described. Purification and cloning of the complementary DNA indicates that IL-1 beta-converting(More)
Small synthetic molecules termed growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) act on the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus to stimulate and amplify pulsatile growth hormone (GH) release. A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor (GPC-R) of the pituitary and arcuate ventro-medial and infundibular hypothalamus of swine and humans was cloned(More)
Growth hormone release is under tight control by two hypothalamic hormones: growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin. In addition, synthetic growth hormone secretagogues have also been shown to regulate growth hormone release through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), suggesting the existence of an additional physiological regulator(More)
Neuromedin U (NMU) is a neuropeptide with potent activity on smooth muscle which was isolated first from porcine spinal cord and later from other species. It is widely distributed in the gut and central nervous system. Peripheral activities of NMU include stimulation of smooth muscle, increase of blood pressure, alteration of ion transport in the gut,(More)
We report the isolation of a cDNA clone named GPR54, which encodes a novel G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). A PCR search of rat brain cDNA retrieved a clone partially encoding a GPCR. In a library screening this clone was used to isolate a cDNA with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a receptor of 396 amino acids long which shared significant identities(More)
GH release is thought to occur under the reciprocal regulation of two hypothalamic peptides, GH releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin, via their engagement with specific cell surface receptors on the anterior pituitary somatotroph. In addition, GH-releasing peptides, such as GHRP-6 and the nonpeptide mimetics, L-692,429 and MK-0677, stimulate GH release(More)
Melanocortin peptide agonists, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and melanotan-II, stimulate erectile activity in a variety of species, including man. Since neither peptide discriminates amongst melanocortin receptors, it is not clear which subtype mediates these pro-erectile effects. Here, we present data that melanocortin-induced(More)
Previous studies have shown that galanin-containing fibers make synaptic contacts with POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus. However, the ability of POMC neurons to express galanin receptors has never been assessed. The present study was designed to investigate whether POMC neurons express galanin receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) and whether testosterone could(More)
Synthetic GH secretagogues (GHSs) act via a receptor (GHS-R) distinct from that for GH-releasing hormone (GHRH). We have studied the hypothalamic expression and regulation of this receptor by in situ hybridization using a homologous riboprobe for rat GHS-R. GHS-R mRNA is prominently expressed in arcuate (ARC) and ventromedial nuclei (VMN) and in(More)
Galanin is a 29- or 30-amino acid peptide with wide-ranging effects on hormone release, feeding behavior, smooth muscle contractility, and somatosensory neuronal function. Three distinct galanin receptor (GALR) subtypes, designated GALR1, 2, and 3, have been cloned from the rat. We report here the cloning of the human GALR2 and GALR3 genes, an initial(More)