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We present the design, implementation, and evaluation of an API for applications to control a software-defined network (SDN). Our API is implemented by an OpenFlow controller that delegates read and write authority from the network's administrators to end users, or applications and devices acting on their behalf. Users can then work with the network, rather(More)
Data processing frameworks such as MapReduce [8] and Dryad [11] are used today in business environments where customers expect guaranteed performance. To date, however, these systems are not capable of providing guarantees on job latency because scheduling policies are based on fair-sharing, and operators seek high cluster use through statistical(More)
We present Flowlog, a tierless language for programming SDN controllers. In contrast to languages with different abstractions for each program tier—the control-plane, data-plane, and controller state—Flowlog provides a unified abstraction for all three tiers. Flowlog is reminiscent of both SQL and rule-based languages such as Cisco IOS and JunOS; unlike(More)
Siderophore-mediated acquisition systems facilitate iron uptake. We present the crystallographic structure of the integral outer membrane receptor FecA from Escherichia coli with and without ferric citrate at 2.5 and 2.0 angstrom resolution. FecA is composed of three distinct domains: the barrel, plug, and NH2-terminal extension. Binding of ferric citrate(More)
Hierarchical policies are useful in many contexts in which resources are shared among multiple entities. Such policies can easily express the delegation of authority and the resolution of conflicts, which arise naturally when decision-making is decentralized. Conceptually, a hierarchical policy could be used to manage network resources, but commodity(More)
Leukotrienes are proinflammatory products of arachidonic acid oxidation by 5-lipoxygenase that have been shown to be involved in respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The integral membrane protein FLAP is essential for leukotriene biosynthesis. We describe the x-ray crystal structures of human FLAP in complex with two leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitors(More)
Leukotrienes have physiological roles in innate immune responses and pathological roles in inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and atherosclerosis. Anti-leukotriene therapy has proven benefits in the treatment of respiratory disease, either through the inhibition of leukotriene synthesis or the selective antagonism of leukotriene(More)
Selenium is an essential trace element with potent cancer prevention activity in mammals. The 15-kDa selenoprotein (Sep15) has been implicated in the chemopreventive effect of dietary selenium. Although the precise function of Sep15 remains elusive, Sep15 co-purifies with UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (GT), an essential regulator of quality(More)
Selenium has significant health benefits, including potent cancer prevention activity and roles in immune function and the male reproductive system. Selenium-containing proteins, which incorporate this essential micronutrient as selenocysteine, are proposed to mediate the positive effects of dietary selenium. Presented here are the solution NMR structures(More)
Plants, bacteria, fungi, and yeast utilize organic iron chelators (siderophores) to establish commensal and pathogenic relationships with hosts and to survive as free-living organisms. In Gram-negative bacteria, transport of siderophores into the periplasm is mediated by TonB-dependent receptors. A complex of three membrane-spanning proteins TonB, ExbB and(More)