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Disruption of components in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signalling cascade is a common occurrence in human cancers. TGF-beta pathway activation is accomplished via serine/threonine kinase receptors and intracellular Smad transcription factors. A key regulatory step involves specific ubiquitination by Smurfs that mediate the proteasomal(More)
Ubiquitin-dependent mechanisms have emerged as essential regulatory elements controlling cellular levels of Smads and TGFβ-dependent biological outputs such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In this study, we identify a HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase known as WWP2 (Full-length WWP2-FL), together with two WWP2 isoforms (N-terminal, WWP2-N; C-terminal(More)
Members of the spalt family of zinc finger-containing proteins have been implicated in development and disease. However, very little is known about the molecular function of spalt proteins. We have used biochemical approaches to characterize functional domains of two chick spalt homologs, csal1 and csal3. We show that csal1 and csal3 proteins repress(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) is a key mediator of extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation in sclerotic kidney diseases such as diabetic nephropathy. One of the main target cells for TGFbeta in the kidney are glomerular mesangial cells, which respond by increasing expression of ECM proteins, such as collagens, laminin and fibronectin, while(More)
Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable disease despite improvements to available treatments and efforts to identify new drug targets. Consequently new approaches are urgently required. We have investigated the potential of native tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), in combination with doxorubicin, to induce apoptotic cell(More)
The balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors, the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), is pivotal in the remodeling of extracellular matrix. TGF-beta has profound effects on extracellular matrix homeostasis, in part via its ability to alter this balance at the level of gene expression. The intracellular signaling(More)
Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family transduce signals through Smad proteins. Smad signaling can be regulated by the Ras/Erk/mitogen-activated protein pathway in response to receptor tyrosine kinase activation and the gamma interferon pathway and also by the functional interaction of Smad2 with Ca(2+)-calmodulin. Here we report(More)
Multiple myeloma (MM) is associated with the development of osteolytic bone disease, mediated by increased osteoclastic bone resorption and impaired osteoblastic bone formation. Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1), a soluble inhibitor of wingless/int (Wnt) signaling and osteoblastogenesis, is elevated in patients with MM and correlates with osteolytic bone disease. In this(More)
The effect of bortezomib on bone remodelling was evaluated in 34 relapsed myeloma patients. At baseline, patients had increased serum concentrations of dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (sRANKL), sRANKL/osteoprotegerin ratio, C-telopeptide of type-I collagen (CTX) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase(More)
Cancers that grow in bone, such as myeloma and breast cancer metastases, cause devastating osteolytic bone destruction. These cancers hijack bone remodeling by stimulating osteoclastic bone resorption and suppressing bone formation. Currently, treatment is targeted primarily at blocking bone resorption, but this approach has achieved only limited success.(More)