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The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is prevalent worldwide and can infect a remarkably wide range of hosts despite felids being the only definitive host. As cats play a major role in transmission to secondary mammalian hosts, the interaction between cats and these hosts should be a major factor determining final prevalence in the secondary host. This(More)
In this article we evaluate the use of approximate visibility for efficient global illumination. Traditionally, accurate visibility is used in light transport. However, the indirect illumination we perceive on a daily basis is rarely of high-frequency nature, as the most significant aspect of light transport in real-world scenes is diffuse, and thus(More)
BACKGROUND In East Africa, animal trypanosomiasis is caused by many tsetse transmitted protozoan parasites including Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense and subspecies of T. brucei s.l. (T. b. brucei and zoonotic human infective T. b. rhodesiense) that may co-circulate in domestic and wild animals. Accurate species-specific prevalence measurements of these(More)
Professional associations could use virtual communities to reinvent their relationships with their members. One promising building block would be to revitalise Special Interest Groups as loose knit Internet based communities. These would be what has been called " networks of practice " or " communities of interest ". Although recognised phenomena, these(More)
Active case detection through mass community screening is a major control strategy against human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness) caused by T. brucei gambiense. However, its impact can be limited by incomplete attendance at screening sessions (screening coverage) and diagnostic inaccuracy. We developed a model-based approach to estimate the(More)
BACKGROUND There is urgent need for effective HIV prevention methods that women can initiate. The CAPRISA 004 trial showed that a tenofovir-based vaginal microbicide had significant impact on HIV incidence among women. This study uses the trial findings to estimate the population-level impact of the gel on HIV and HSV-2 transmission, and price thresholds at(More)
A recent major cluster randomized trial of screening, active disease treatment, and mass isoniazid preventive therapy for 9 months during 2006-2011 among South African gold miners showed reduced individual-level tuberculosis incidence but no detectable population-level impact. We fitted a dynamic mathematical model to trial data and explored 1) factors(More)