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PDZ domains are protein-protein interaction modules that recognize specific C-terminal sequences to assemble protein complexes in multicellular organisms. By scanning billions of random peptides, we accurately map binding specificity for approximately half of the over 330 PDZ domains in the human and Caenorhabditis elegans proteomes. The domains recognize(More)
B cell immunotherapy has emerged as a mainstay in the treatment of lymphomas and autoimmune diseases. Although the microenvironment has recently been demonstrated to play critical roles in B cell homeostasis, its contribution to immunotherapy is unknown. To analyze the in vivo factors that regulate mechanisms involved in B cell immunotherapy, we used a(More)
The area of contact between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell (APC) is known as the immunological synapse. Although its exact function is unknown, one model suggests that it allows for T cell receptor (TCR) clustering and for sustained signaling in T cells for many hours. Here we demonstrate that TCR-mediated tyrosine kinase signaling in naïve T cells(More)
The evolutionarily conserved actin-related protein (Arp2/3) complex is a key component of actin filament networks that is dynamically regulated by nucleation-promoting and inhibitory factors. Although much is known about actin assembly, the physiologic functions of inhibitory proteins are unclear. We generated coronin 1-/- mice and found that coronin 1(More)
The endocannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamine (anandamide) is a lipid transmitter synthesized and released "on demand" by neurons in the brain. Anandamide is also generated by macrophages where its endotoxin (LPS)-induced synthesis has been implicated in the hypotension of septic shock and advanced liver cirrhosis. Anandamide can be generated from its(More)
Protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases cooperate to regulate normal immune cell function. We examined the role of PEST domain-enriched tyrosine phosphatase (PEP) in regulating T cell antigen-receptor function during thymocyte development and peripheral T cell differentiation. Although normal naïve T cell functions were retained in pep-deficient mice,(More)
Activation of the cell surface CD95 receptor triggers a cascade of signaling events, including assembly of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), that culminate in cellular apoptosis. In this study, we demonstrate a general requirement of receptor internalization for CD95 ligand-mediated DISC amplification, caspase activation and apoptosis in type I(More)
The immune system must distinguish not only between self and non-self, but also between innocuous and pathological foreign antigens to prevent unnecessary or self-destructive immune responses. Unresponsiveness to harmless antigens is established through central and peripheral processes. Whereas clonal deletion and anergy are mechanisms of peripheral(More)
Spatial organization of cellular proteins plays an important role in establishment of cellular polarity to regulate cell division, differentiation, migration, and organogenesis. Activation of T cells by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) results in the formation of an immunological synapse (IS), assembly of a signaling scaffold at the T cell receptor (TCR)(More)
This work addresses the use of vibrotactile haptic feedback to transmit background information with variable intrusiveness, when recipients are engrossed in a primary visual and/or auditory task. We describe two studies designed to (a) perceptually optimize a set of vibrotactile "icons" and (b) evaluate users' ability to identify them in the presence of(More)