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—Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are generally designed to support applications in long-term deployments, and thus WSN protocols are primarily designed to be energy efficient. However, the research community has recently explored new WSN applications such as industrial process automation. These mission-critical applications demand not only energy efficient(More)
There is a rich scholarly literature on sovereign default on external debt. Comparatively little is known about sovereign default on domestic debt. Even today, crosscountry data on domestic public debt remains curiously exotic, particularly prior to the 1980s. We have filled this gap in the literature by compiling a database on central government public(More)
We analyse the implications of optimal taxation for the stochastic behaviour of debt. We show that when a government pursues an optimal fiscal policy under complete markets, the value of debt has the same or less persistence than other variables in the economy and it declines in response to shocks that cause the deficit to increase. By contrast, under(More)
Theoretical models of growth and trade suggest that patterns of international specialisation are inherently dynamic and evolve endoge-nously over time. Initial comparative advantages are either reinforced or gradually unwound with the passage of time. This paper puts forward an empirical framework to evaluate the dynamics of international trade patterns,(More)
Fire is a worldwide phenomenon that appears in the geological record soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants. Fire influences global ecosystem patterns and processes, including vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle, and climate. Although humans and fire have always coexisted, our capacity to manage fire remains imperfect and may(More)
We investigate theoretically and empirically the competitive effects of increased trade on prices, productivity and markups. Using disaggregated data for EU manufacturing over the period 1988-2000 we Þnd increased openness exerts a negative and signiÞcant impact on sectoral prices. Increased openness lowers prices by both reducing markups and raising(More)
Caffeine is both ingested by pregnant women in their third trimesters and administered therapeutically to premature infants to stimulate respiration. This experiment attempted to delineate any persistent effects of low dose caffeine exposure during the first week of life in rats, since this time period provides an animal model equivalent to the human third(More)
for useful discussions. We are also grateful for comments from Abstract Our objective is to identify the trading strategy that would allow an investor to take advantage of " excessive " stock price volatility and " sentiment " fluctuations. We construct a general-equilibrium model of sentiment. In it, there are two classes of agents and stock prices are(More)
It is rapidly becoming clear that entertainment will be one of the killer applications of future wireless networks. More specifically mobile gaming is predicted to be worth $1.2 billion by the year 2006 to providers in the U.S. alone [20]. The driving force behind this is the introduction of powerful feature rich handsets and ubiquitous access to high(More)
There are a number of alternative directions in which active networking is progressing, each of which have their own advantages and disadvantages. This paper presents the Lancaster Active Router Architecture (LARA), as a means to integrate these distinct active network environments in a single system, to allow increased flexibility in network programming.(More)