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The assembly of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) into distinct ion channel tetramers ultimately governs the nature of information transfer at excitatory synapses. How cells regulate the formation of diverse homo- and heteromeric AMPARs is unknown. Using a sensitive biophysical approach, we show that the extracellular, membrane-distal AMPAR N-terminal(More)
Mouse ENU mutagenesis programmes have yielded a series of independent mutations on proximal chromosome 4 leading to dominant head-bobbing and circling behaviour due to truncations of the lateral semicircular canal of the inner ear. Here, we report the identification of mutations in the Chd7 gene in nine of these mutant alleles including six nonsense and(More)
AMPA-type (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate) glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate post-synaptic depolarization and fast excitatory transmission in the central nervous system. AMPARs are tetrameric ion channels that assemble in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a poorly understood process. The subunit composition determines channel(More)
Adenosine-to-Inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a post-transcriptional mechanism, evolved to diversify the transcriptome in metazoa. In addition to wide-spread editing in non-coding regions protein recoding by RNA editing allows for fine tuning of protein function. Functional consequences are only known for some editing sites and the combinatorial effect(More)
Ion channel biogenesis involves an intricate interplay between subunit folding and assembly. Channel stoichiometries vary and give rise to diverse functions, which impacts on neuronal signalling. AMPA glutamate receptor (AMPAR) assembly is modulated by RNA processing. Here, we provide mechanistic insight into this process. First, we show that a single(More)
AMPA receptors are ion channel tetramers that mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission in vertebrate brains. AMPAR functional properties as well as receptor biogenesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are shaped by RNA processing events, including adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing and alternative splicing. Recoded sites line interfaces of subunit(More)
RNA editing by adensosine deaminases is a widespread mechanism to alter genetic information in metazoa. In addition to modifications in non-coding regions, editing contributes to diversification of protein function, in analogy to alternative splicing. However, although splicing programs respond to external signals, facilitating fine tuning and homeostasis(More)
Glutamate-gated ion channels (iGluRs) predominantly operate as heterotetramers to mediate excitatory neurotransmission at glutamatergic synapses. The subunit composition of the receptors determines their targeting to synaptic sites and signalling properties and is therefore a fundamental parameter for neuronal computations. iGluRs assemble as obligatory or(More)
Short-term plasticity of AMPAR currents during high-frequency stimulation depends not only on presynaptic transmitter release and postsynaptic AMPAR recovery from desensitization, but also on fast AMPAR diffusion. How AMPAR diffusion within the synapse regulates synaptic transmission on the millisecond scale remains mysterious. Using single-molecule(More)
PSD-95 is a prominent organizer of the postsynaptic density (PSD) that can present a filamentous orientation perpendicular to the plasma membrane. Interactions between PSD-95 and transmembrane proteins might be particularly sensitive to this orientation, as "long" cytoplasmic tails might be required to reach deeper PSD-95 domains. Extension/retraction of(More)