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The assembly of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) into distinct ion channel tetramers ultimately governs the nature of information transfer at excitatory synapses. How cells regulate the formation of diverse homo- and heteromeric AMPARs is unknown. Using a sensitive biophysical approach, we show that the extracellular, membrane-distal AMPAR N-terminal(More)
AMPA-type (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate) glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate post-synaptic depolarization and fast excitatory transmission in the central nervous system. AMPARs are tetrameric ion channels that assemble in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a poorly understood process. The subunit composition determines channel(More)
Calcium buffers are important for shaping and localizing cytoplasmic Ca2+ transients in neurons. We measured the concentrations of the four main calcium-buffering proteins (calbindin-D28k, calretinin, parvalbumin-alpha, and parvalbumin-beta) in rat cochlear hair cells in which Ca2+ signaling is a central element of fast transduction and synaptic(More)
Ion channel biogenesis involves an intricate interplay between subunit folding and assembly. Channel stoichiometries vary and give rise to diverse functions, which impacts on neuronal signalling. AMPA glutamate receptor (AMPAR) assembly is modulated by RNA processing. Here, we provide mechanistic insight into this process. First, we show that a single(More)
AMPA receptors are ion channel tetramers that mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission in vertebrate brains. AMPAR functional properties as well as receptor biogenesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are shaped by RNA processing events, including adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing and alternative splicing. Recoded sites line interfaces of subunit(More)
RNA editing by adensosine deaminases is a widespread mechanism to alter genetic information in metazoa. In addition to modifications in non-coding regions, editing contributes to diversification of protein function, in analogy to alternative splicing. However, although splicing programs respond to external signals, facilitating fine tuning and homeostasis(More)
Glutamate-gated ion channels (iGluRs) predominantly operate as heterotetramers to mediate excitatory neurotransmission at glutamatergic synapses. The subunit composition of the receptors determines their targeting to synaptic sites and signalling properties and is therefore a fundamental parameter for neuronal computations. iGluRs assemble as obligatory or(More)
Adenosine-to-Inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a post-transcriptional mechanism, evolved to diversify the transcriptome in metazoa. In addition to wide-spread editing in non-coding regions protein recoding by RNA editing allows for fine tuning of protein function. Functional consequences are only known for some editing sites and the combinatorial effect(More)
The fine control of molecules mediating communication in the nervous system is key to adjusting neuronal signaling during development and in maintaining the stability of established networks in the face of altered sensory input. To prevent the culmination of pathological recurrent network excitation or debilitating periods of quiescence, adaptive(More)
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