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Orthostatic intolerance is common when astronauts return to Earth: after brief spaceflight, up to two-thirds are unable to remain standing for 10 min. Previous research suggests that susceptible individuals are unable to increase their systemic vascular resistance and plasma noradrenaline concentrations above pre-flight upright levels. In this study, we(More)
The purpose was to test the hypothesis that twice daily, short-term, variable intensity isotonic and intermittent high-intensity isokinetic leg exercise would maintain peak O2 uptake (VO2) and muscular strength and endurance, respectively, at or near ambulatory control levels during 30 days of -6 degrees head-down bed rest (BR) deconditioning. Nineteen men(More)
The aim of this study was to determine whether the duration of antecedent hypoglycemia regulates the magnitude of subsequent counterregulatory failure. A total of 31 lean healthy overnight-fasted individuals (16 men/15 women) were studied. There were 15 subjects (8 men/7 women) who underwent two separate 2-day randomized experiments separated by at least 2(More)
We propose a new technique for analyzing the raw neurogram which enables the study of the discharge behavior of individual and group neurons. It utilizes an ideal bandpass filter, a modified wavelet de-noising procedure, an action potential detector, and a waveform classifier. We validated our approach with both simulated data generated from muscle(More)
Exercise is a cornerstone of diabetes management as it aids in glycemic control, weight management, reducing blood pressure, and improving the quality of life of patients. Unfortunately, owing to the complexity and difficulties of regulating exogenous insulin in a physiologic manner during exercise, physical activity often results in hypoglycemia in(More)
Bed rest and spaceflight reduce exercise fitness. Supine lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treadmill exercise provides integrated cardiovascular and musculoskeletal stimulation similar to that imposed by upright exercise in Earth gravity. We hypothesized that 40 min of supine exercise per day in a LBNP chamber at 1.0-1.2 body wt (58 +/- 2 mmHg LBNP)(More)
PURPOSE Orthostatic intolerance is the cause of significant disability in otherwise normal patients. Orthostatic tachycardia is usually the dominant hemodynamic abnormality, but symptoms may include dizziness, visual changes, discomfort in the head or neck, poor concentration, fatigue, palpitations, tremulousness, anxiety and, in some cases, syncope. It is(More)
Astronauts returning from space have reduced red blood cell masses, hypovolaemia and orthostatic intolerance, marked by greater cardio-acceleration during standing than before spaceflight, and in some, orthostatic hypotension and presyncope. Adaptation of the sympathetic nervous system occurring during spaceflight may be responsible for these postflight(More)
BACKGROUND/HYPOTHESIS To simulate exposure to microgravity and to determine the effectiveness of intermittent exposure to passive and active +1 Gz force (head-to-foot) in preventing head-down bed rest (HDBR) deconditioning, 4 d of 6 degrees HDBR were used. METHODS Volunteers were 9 males, 30-50 yr, who performed periodic standing or controlled walking for(More)
OBJECTIVE The physiology of counterregulatory responses during hypoglycemia in intensively treated type 2 diabetic subjects is largely unknown. Therefore, the specific aims of the study tested the hypothesis that 1) 6 months of intensive therapy to lower A1C <7.0% would blunt autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to hypoglycemia, and 2) antecedent(More)