Andrew C. Ertl

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We propose a new technique for analyzing the raw neurogram which enables the study of the discharge behavior of individual and group neurons. It utilizes an ideal bandpass filter, a modified wavelet de-noising procedure, an action potential detector, and a waveform classifier. We validated our approach with both simulated data generated from muscle(More)
Orthostatic intolerance is common when astronauts return to Earth: after brief spaceflight, up to two-thirds are unable to remain standing for 10 min. Previous research suggests that susceptible individuals are unable to increase their systemic vascular resistance and plasma noradrenaline concentrations above pre-flight upright levels. In this study, we(More)
BACKGROUND The postural tachycardia syndrome is a common disorder that is characterized by chronic orthostatic symptoms and a dramatic increase in heart rate on standing, but that does not involve orthostatic hypotension. Several lines of evidence indicate that this disorder may result from sympathetic denervation of the legs. METHODS We measured(More)
Bed rest and spaceflight reduce exercise fitness. Supine lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treadmill exercise provides integrated cardiovascular and musculoskeletal stimulation similar to that imposed by upright exercise in Earth gravity. We hypothesized that 40 min of supine exercise per day in a LBNP chamber at 1.0-1.2 body wt (58 +/- 2 mmHg LBNP)(More)
BACKGROUND/HYPOTHESIS To simulate exposure to microgravity and to determine the effectiveness of intermittent exposure to passive and active +1 Gz force (head-to-foot) in preventing head-down bed rest (HDBR) deconditioning, 4 d of 6 degrees HDBR were used. METHODS Volunteers were 9 males, 30-50 yr, who performed periodic standing or controlled walking for(More)
Astronauts returning from space have reduced red blood cell masses, hypovolaemia and orthostatic intolerance, marked by greater cardio-acceleration during standing than before spaceflight, and in some, orthostatic hypotension and presyncope. Adaptation of the sympathetic nervous system occurring during spaceflight may be responsible for these postflight(More)
The aim of this study was to determine whether the duration of antecedent hypoglycemia regulates the magnitude of subsequent counterregulatory failure. A total of 31 lean healthy overnight-fasted individuals (16 men/15 women) were studied. There were 15 subjects (8 men/7 women) who underwent two separate 2-day randomized experiments separated by at least 2(More)
Exposure to microgravity alters the distribution of body fluids and the degree of distension of cranial blood vessels, and these changes in turn may provoke structural remodelling and altered cerebral autoregulation. Impaired cerebral autoregulation has been documented following weightlessness simulated by head-down bed rest in humans, and is proposed as a(More)
Upright posture leads to rapid pooling of blood in the lower extremities and shifts plasma fluid into surrounding tissues. This results in a decrease in plasma volume (PV) and in hemoconcentration. There has been no integrative evaluation of concomitant neurohumoral and PV shifts with upright posture in normal subjects. We studied 10 healthy subjects after(More)
Astronauts returning to Earth have reduced orthostatic tolerance and exercise capacity. Alterations in autonomic nervous system and neuromuscular function after spaceflight might contribute to this problem. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to microgravity impairs autonomic neural control of sympathetic outflow in response to peripheral(More)