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Astronauts returning from space have reduced red blood cell masses, hypovolaemia and orthostatic intolerance, marked by greater cardio-acceleration during standing than before spaceflight, and in some, orthostatic hypotension and presyncope. Adaptation of the sympathetic nervous system occurring during spaceflight may be responsible for these postflight(More)
We propose a new technique for analyzing the raw neurogram which enables the study of the discharge behavior of individual and group neurons. It utilizes an ideal bandpass filter, a modified wavelet de-noising procedure, an action potential detector, and a waveform classifier. We validated our approach with both simulated data generated from muscle(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the semicircular canals and otolith organs on respiration in humans. On the basis of animal studies, we hypothesized that vestibular activation would elicit a vestibulorespiratory reflex. To test this hypothesis, respiratory measures, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate were measured during(More)
OBJECTIVE The physiology of counterregulatory responses during hypoglycemia in intensively treated type 2 diabetic subjects is largely unknown. Therefore, the specific aims of the study tested the hypothesis that 1) 6 months of intensive therapy to lower A1C <7.0% would blunt autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to hypoglycemia, and 2) antecedent(More)
OBJECTIVE Hypoglycemia commonly occurs in intensively-treated diabetic patients. Repeated hypoglycemia blunts counterregulatory responses, thereby increasing the risk for further hypoglycemic events. Currently, physiologic approaches to augment counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia have not been established. Therefore, the specific aim of this study(More)
OBJECTIVE Previous work has demonstrated that chronic administration of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine augments counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia in healthy humans. However, virtually no information exists regarding the effects of fluoxetine on integrated physiological counterregulatory responses during hypoglycemia in type 1(More)
Because it is likely that, in healthy human subjects, baroreflex mechanisms operate continuously, independent of experimental interventions, we asked the question, In what ways might study of unprovoked, very infrequent muscle sympathetic bursts inform baroreflex physiology? We closely examined arterial pressure and R-R interval responses of 11 supine(More)
OBJECTIVE To date, there are no data investigating the effects of GABA(A) activation on counterregulatory responses during repeated hypoglycemia in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of prior GABA(A) activation using the benzodiazepine alprazolam on the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system (ANS) and metabolic counterregulatory(More)
KEY POINTS We studied healthy astronauts before, during and after the Neurolab Space Shuttle mission with controlled breathing and apnoea, to identify autonomic changes that might contribute to postflight orthostatic intolerance. Measurements included the electrocardiogram, finger photoplethysmographic arterial pressure, respiratory carbon dioxide levels,(More)
OBJECTIVE Recent large randomized trials have linked adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events with hypoglycemia. However, the integrated physiological and vascular biological mechanisms occurring during hypoglycemia have not been extensively examined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether 2 h of moderate clamped hypoglycemia(More)
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