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OBJECTIVES To examine susceptibilities of Bacillus anthracis and related species to 24 antimicrobials using and concurrently comparing two methods. METHODS Twenty-four antimicrobials were tested against 95 isolates of the Bacillus cereus group including 18 B. anthracis, 42 B. cereus, 5 Bacillus mycoides, 5 Bacillus mycoides/pseudomycoides, 6 Bacillus… (More)
Unicellular green algae, like Chlorella, offer a potentially useful system for the expression of heterologous proteins. However, the development of Chlorella as a bioreactor has been delayed owing to the lack of a stable transformation technique. Here we report on the use of micro-projectile bombardment to introduce the nitrate reductase (NR) gene from… (More)
The reduction of nitrate to nitrite catalyzed by nitrate reductase (NR) is considered to be the rate-limiting and regulated step of nitrate assimilation, a major metabolic pathway occurring in a wide range of organisms which in turn supply the nutritional nitrogen requirements for other forms of life. Chlorella vulgaris NR mRNA levels are very responsive to… (More)
In this study, food samples were intentionally contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, and then DNA was isolated by using four commercial kits. The isolated DNA samples were compared by using real-time PCR detection of the Shiga toxin genes. The four kits tested worked similarly.
Nitrate reductase (NR), the rate-limiting and primary control point of the nitrate assimilation pathway, is regulated at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. To better understand how NR is regulated at the transcriptional level in Chlorella vulgaris, studies were performed to identify the factors regulating NR expression. Sequence analysis of… (More)
Since mid-March 2014, the frequency with which cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection have been reported has increased, with the majority of recent cases reported from Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates (UAE). In addition, the frequency with which travel-associated MERS cases have been reported and the number of… (More)
To prove linkage between an environmental sample and an anthrax case, there must be isolates obtained from both that can be compared. Although Bacillus anthracis is easily isolated from powder samples, isolating it from soil is difficult because of the high bacterial count in it. Formulations of PLET were prepared, inoculated with B. anthracis, B. cereus… (More)
Nitrate reductase (NR; EC 220.127.116.11-3) can be controlled at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Here we describe stability of NR mRNA as a mechanism of control. The NR gene in Chlorella vulgaris (Warburg strain) transcribes a stable mRNA and an unstable mRNA. In-vitro-synthesized transcripts representing these mRNAs show the same stability… (More)
Exposure of dark-grown Euglena to white or red light, but not blue light, produced a twofold increase in the specific activity of citrate synthase. A 400-fold purification of mitochondrial citrate synthase (subunit Mr = 44000) was achieved from cells of Euglena gracilis by affinity chromatography on ATP-activated agarose. Antisera, raised against the… (More)
Bacillus anthracis spores have been used as a biological weapon in the United States. We wanted to develop a safe, rapid method of sample preparation that provided safe DNA for the detection of spores in environmental and clinical specimens. Our method reproducibly detects B. anthracis in samples containing <10 spores.