Andrew C Bulmer

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Unconjugated bilirubin is an endogenous circulating antioxidant, bound to albumin, and therefore is retained in the vascular compartment. Bilirubin has well-documented neurotoxic effects in infants; however, current evidence indicates mildly elevated bilirubin is associated with protection from cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in adults.(More)
Bile pigments, including bilirubin and biliverdin, are endogenous compounds belonging to the porphyrin family of molecules. In the past, bile pigments and bilirubin in particular were thought of as useless by-products of heme catabolism that can be toxic if they accumulate. However, in the past 20 years, research probing the physiological relevance of bile(More)
A protective association between bilirubin and atherosclerosis/ischemic heart disease clearly exists in vivo. However, the relationship between bilirubin and in vivo oxidative stress parameters in a clinical population remains poorly described. The aim of this study was to assess whether persons expressing Gilbert syndrome (GS; i.e., unconjugated(More)
SIGNIFICANCE Heme degradation, which was described more than 30 years ago, is still very actively explored with many novel discoveries on its role in various disease models every year. RECENT ADVANCES The heme oxygenases (HO) are metabolic enzymes that utilize NADPH and oxygen to break apart the heme moiety liberating biliverdin (BV), carbon monoxide(More)
Gilbert's syndrome (GS) is characterized by a benign, mildly elevated bilirubin concentration in the blood. Recent reports show clear protection from cardiovascular disease in this population. Protection of lipids, proteins and other macromolecules from oxidation by bilirubin represents the most commonly accepted mechanism contributing to protection in this(More)
Bilirubin is a potent antioxidant, however, uncertainty surrounds its physiological importance. Individuals with Gilbert's syndrome (GS) have increased circulating bilirubin and a reduced prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to investigate mechanisms that may link bilirubin to protection from CVD seen in GS by examining(More)
Obesity and its comorbidities (dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance and hypertension) that together constitute the metabolic syndrome are all risk factors for ischaemic heart disease. Although obesity has been reported to be an independent risk factor for congestive heart failure, whether obesity-induced heart failure develops in the absence of increased(More)
To determine if gender and/or the use of oral contraceptives alter cycling performance with exercise-induced muscle damage (EiMD). Nine male adults (MEN), nine normally menstruating female adults (WomenNM), and nine female adults using oral contraceptives (WomenOC) participated. Gas exchange and time to exhaustion were measured during continuous cycling(More)
To examine the influence of estradiol on muscle damage and leg strength after intense eccentric exercise. Eight men (MEN), eight normally menstruating women (WomenNM), and eight women using oral contraceptives (WomenOC) participated in this study. Subjects performed 240 maximal-effort bilateral eccentric contractions of the quadriceps muscle groups designed(More)
Neutrophils serve as an intriguing model for the study of innate immune cellular activity induced by physiological stress. We measured changes in the transcriptome of circulating neutrophils following an experimental exercise trial (EXTRI) consisting of 1 h of intense cycling immediately followed by 1 h of intense running. Blood samples were taken at(More)