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The amygdala is a key region in emotion processing. In particular, fMRI studies have demonstrated that the amygdala is active during the viewing of emotional faces. Previous research has consistently found greater amygdala responses to fearful than to neutral faces in adults, convergent with a focus in the animal literature on the amygdala's role in fear(More)
BACKGROUND Recent research has demonstrated that clinical depression can emerge as early as the preschool period. Here, we examine brain function in children with a history of preschool-onset depression (PO-MDD) in comparison with healthy children. METHODS Participants were medication naïve school-aged children (ages 7-11) with PO-MDD (n = 22) or no(More)
Depression has been linked to increased cortisol reactivity and differences in limbic brain volumes, yet the mechanisms underlying these alterations are unclear. One main hypothesis is that stress causes these effects. This is supported by animal studies showing that chronic stress or glucocorticoid administration can lead to alterations in hippocampal and(More)
Structural and functional alterations in a variety of brain regions have been associated with depression and risk for depression across the life span. A majority of these regions are associated with emotion reactivity and/or regulation. However, it is generally unclear what mechanistic role these alterations play in the etiology of depression. A first step(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests a role for stress exposure, particularly during early life, and for variation in genes involved in stress response pathways in neural responsivity to emotional stimuli. Understanding how individual differences in these factors predict differences in emotional responsivity may be important for understanding both normative(More)
OBJECTIVE Despite research documenting the existence of depression and other psychiatric disorders in early childhood, little is known about the nature and consequences of suicidal cognitions and behaviors (SI) in young children ages 3 to 7 years. The identification of trajectories of SI across childhood is a critical step toward preventing childhood(More)
Internalizing pathology is related to alterations in amygdala resting state functional connectivity, potentially implicating altered emotional reactivity and/or emotion regulation in the etiological pathway. Importantly, there is accumulating evidence that stress exposure and genetic vulnerability impact amygdala structure/function and risk for(More)
In 1940, the tidal Delaware River was "one of the most grossly polluted areas in the United States." During the 1950s, water quality was so poor along the river at Philadelphia that zero oxygen levels prevented migration of American shad leading to near extirpation of the species. Since then, water quality in the Delaware Basin has improved with(More)
While major depressive disorder has been shown to be a significant mental health issue for school-age children, recent research indicates that depression can be observed in children as early as the preschool period. Yet, little work has been done to explore the neurobiological factors associated with this early form of depression. Given research suggesting(More)
BACKGROUND The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) is a key center of affect regulation and processing, fundamental aspects of emotional competence which are disrupted in mood disorders. Structural alterations of VMPFC have consistently been observed in adult major depression and are associated with depression severity, yet it is unknown whether young(More)