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Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most common pathological substrate for temporal lobe epilepsy with a characteristic pattern of loss of principle neurons primarily in CA1 and hilar subfields. Other cytoarchitectural abnormalities have been identified in human HS specimens, including dispersion of dentate granule cells and cytoskeletal abnormalities in(More)
In the brain of patients with AIDS, HIV-1 is localised in a productive form in mononuclear cells. One issue that still needs clarification is whether HIV is localised in cells other than those of mononuclear lineage. Gene amplification by polymerase chain reaction/in situ hybridisation (PCR-IS) could shed light on it. In this study, formalin-fixed,(More)
The presence of neuropsychological disturbances in HIV-positive, pre-symptomatic individuals is a controversial issue. Neuroimaging studies have not shown brain atrophy or hyperintensity in the white matter, whereas proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy has revealed some abnormality of cerebral biochemistry. Using an antibody to beta-amyloid precursor(More)
Microdysgenesis is a microscopic cortical malformation reported to occur with varying incidence in surgical lobectomies from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). It may act as a substrate for the seizures. Four patients are reported with TLE, hippocampal sclerosis and cortical microdysgenesis which was also characterized by the presence of abnormal(More)
The pathogenesis of neuropsychological abnormalities in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encephalitis is obscure because neurons are not the target of infection and severe neuronal loss occurs only late during the disease. Moreover, there is evidence indicating that HIV dementia is not a homogeneous entity and could partially(More)
Nuclear p53 immunoreactivity is demonstrated in infected oligodendroglia, as well as in a proportion of reactive and bizarre astrocytes, in seven progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) biopsies. This likely represents binding to, and prolongation of the half-life of, wild-type p53 protein by JC virus T-antigen. Other possible mechanisms are(More)
Hypothermia is present in up to two-thirds of patients with severe injury, although it is often disregarded during the initial resuscitation. Studies have revealed that hypothermia is associated with mortality in a large percentage of trauma cases when the patient's temperature is below 32 °C. Risk factors include the severity of injury, wet clothing, low(More)
BACKGROUND Acute coagulopathy after traumatic brain injury (TBI) involves a complex multifactorial hemostatic response that is poorly characterized. OBJECTIVES To examine early posttraumatic alterations in coagulofibrinolytic, endothelial, and inflammatory blood biomarkers in relation to sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and 6-month patient(More)
Morquio disease (mucopolysaccharidosis type IV) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder causing predominantly skeletal manifestations. It is caused by a deficiency of galactose-6-sulphatase. In classical Morquio disease there is extreme short stature with height being between 90 and 120 cm. We have identified 10 individuals in Northern Ireland(More)
Approximately 30% of a breeding colony of Sprague-Dawley rats homozygous for an autosomal recessive mutation mf ("mutilated foot") associated with a peripheral sensory neuropathy have been found unexpectedly to suffer spontaneous epileptiform attacks. Seizures ranged from brief episodes of compulsive running to tonic-clonic convulsions lasting for up to 30(More)