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Only a small fraction of neurotransmitter-containing synaptic vesicles (SVs), the readily releasable pool, is available for fast Ca(2+)-induced release at any synapse. Most SVs are sequestered at sites away from the plasma membrane and cannot be exocytosed directly. Recruitment of SVs to the releasable pool is thought to be an important component of(More)
Many of the molecules necessary for neurotransmission are homologous to proteins involved in the Golgi-to-plasma membrane stage of the yeast secretory pathway. Of 15 genes known to be essential for the later stages of vesicle trafficking in yeast, 7 have no identified mammalian homologs. These include the yeast SEC6, SEC8, and SEC15 genes, whose products(More)
Hrs-2, via interactions with SNAP-25, plays a regulatory role on the exocytic machinery. We now show that Hrs-2 physically interacts with Eps15, a protein required for receptor-mediated endocytosis. The Hrs-2/Eps15 interaction is calcium dependent, inhibited by SNAP-25 and alpha-adaptin, and results in the inhibition of receptor-mediated endocytosis.(More)
We have examined the influence of glutamate on cortical brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Kainic acid (KA) produced an upregulation of hippocampal and neocortical BDNF mRNA as well as BDNF protein that was blocked by a non-NMDA antagonist, 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX), but(More)
Associations between proteins present on neurotransmitter-containing vesicles and on the presynaptic membrane are thought to underlie docking and fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane, which are obligate steps in regulated neurotransmission. SNAP-25 resides on the plasma membrane and interacts with syntaxin (a plasma membrane t-SNARE) and(More)
In vivo microdialysis coupled with HPLC and radioimmuno-assay techniques were used to analyze dopamine (DA) and neurotensin (NT) in prefrontal cortical extracellular fluid following electrical stimulation of mesocortical axons. The release (overflow into the extracellular fluid) of both DA and NT increased with increasing number of impulses and with(More)
Movement through the endocytic pathway occurs principally via a series of membrane fusion and fission reactions that allow sorting of molecules to be recycled from those to be degraded. Endosome fusion is dependent on SNARE proteins, although the nature of the proteins involved and their regulation has not been fully elucidated. We found that the(More)
The molecular events underlying vesicular trafficking probably involve the formation and dissolution of protein complexes between integral components of the vesicle and its target membrane. SNAP-25 is associated with the plasma membrane and is a component of a core protein complex thought to be essential for neurotransmitter release. We have previously(More)
Regulated secretion of neurotransmitter at the synapse is likely to be mediated by dynamic protein interactions involving components of the vesicle (vesicle-associated membrane protein; VAMP) and plasma membrane (syntaxin and synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25)) along with additional molecules that allow for the regulation of this process.(More)
The effects of exposure to acute mild footshock stress on concentrations of neurotensin-, somatostatin-, and corticotropin-releasing factor-like immunoreactivity (li) in mesotelencephalic dopamine system regions of the rat were examined. Mild stress exposure resulted in a selective and regionally specific increase in neurotensin-li concentrations in the(More)