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Wntbeta-catenin signaling plays key roles in several developmental and pathological processes. Domains of Wnt expression have been extensively investigated in the mouse, but the tissues receiving the signal remain largely unidentified. To define which cells respond to activated beta-catenin during mammalian development, we generated the(More)
HeLa cells were encapsulated in agarose microbeads, permeabilized and incubated with Br-UTP in a 'physiological' buffer; then sites of RNA synthesis were immunolabelled using an antibody that reacts with Br-RNA. After extending nascent RNA chains by < 400 nucleotides in vitro, approximately 300-500 focal synthetic sites can be seen in each nucleus by(More)
HeLa cells in early S phase were encapsulated in agarose microbeads, permeabilized, and incubated with biotin-11-dUTP in a "physiological" buffer. Sites of DNA synthesis were then immunolabeled. As others have found, approximately 150 focal sites of synthesis were visible in each nucleus by light microscopy; they also contained DNA polymerase alpha and(More)
Driver mutations in the two histone 3.3 (H3.3) genes, H3F3A and H3F3B, were recently identified by whole genome sequencing in 95% of chondroblastoma (CB) and by targeted gene sequencing in 92% of giant cell tumour of bone (GCT). Given the high prevalence of these driver mutations, it may be possible to utilise these alterations as diagnostic adjuncts in(More)
This review aims to summarize experimental evidence supporting the role of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signalling system in the progression, maintenance, and treatment of cancer. These data implicate the IGF system as an important modifier of cancer cell proliferation, survival, growth, and treatment sensitivity. The role of the IGF system in(More)
Purpose: Chondrosarcomas are notoriously resistant to cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. We sought to identify critical signaling pathways that contribute to their survival and proliferation, and which may provide potential targets for rational therapeutic interventions. Experimental Design: Activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) was surveyed using(More)
Bevacizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) antibody, is used in metastatic colorectal carcinoma (CRC) treatment, but responses are unpredictable. Vascular endothelial growth factor is alternatively spliced to form proangiogenic VEGF(165) and antiangiogenic VEGF(165)b. Using isoform-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and(More)
Sites of DNA replication in nuclei are focally concentrated, suggesting that an underlying structure organizes the activity of many polymerases. As fixation could induce aggregation into foci, we examined the distribution of replication sites in unfixed nuclei. HeLa cells were encapsulated in agarose microbeads, permeabilized in a 'physiological' buffer,(More)
Pancreatic cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death. Identification of defined patient groups based on a prognostic index may improve the prediction of survival and selection of therapy. Many prognostic factors have been identified often based on retrospective, underpowered studies with unclear analyses. Data from 653 patients were analysed.(More)
Secreted factors from the epicardium are believed to be important in directing heart ventricular cardiomyocyte proliferation and morphogenesis, although the specific factors involved have not been identified or characterized adequately. We found that IGF2 is the most prominent mitogen made by primary mouse embryonic epicardial cells and by a newly derived(More)