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The arrangement of tRNA genes at the junction of the cytochrome oxidase II and ATPase 8 genes was examined across a broad range of Hymenoptera. Seven distinct arrangements of tRNA genes were identified among a group of wasps that have diverged over the last 180 Myr (suborder Apocrita); many of the rearrangements represent evolutionarily independent events.(More)
We inferred the incidence of nucleotide conversions in the COI and 16S rRNA mitochondrial genes of members of the Symphyta and basal Apocrita (Hymenoptera). Character-state reconstructions in both genes suggested that conversions between A and T (AT transversions) occurred much more frequently than any other type of change, although we cannot wholly(More)
Comprehensive phylogenetic analyses utilize data from distinct sources, including nuclear, mitochondrial, and plastid molecular sequences and morphology. Such heterogeneous datasets are likely to require distinct models of analysis, given the different histories of mutational biases operating on these characters. The incongruence length difference (ILD)(More)
Phylogenetic relationships among the major groups of hymenopteran insects were investigated by using comparative sequence information from the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. The placement of the ectoparasitic Stephanidae as the sister group to the remaining Apocrita confirmed ectoparasitism as the ground plan biology for the Apocrita. Endoparasitism evolved(More)
Security vulnerabilities discovered later in the development cycle are more expensive to fix than those discovered early. Therefore, software developers should strive to discover vulnerabilities as early as possible. Unfortunately, the large size of code bases and lack of developer expertise can make discovering software vulnerabilities difficult. To ease(More)
Phylogenetic relationships among the Braconidae were examined using homologous 16S rDNA gene sequence data. Analyses recovered the few well-supported relationships evident in this family from morphological analyses, viz the monophyly of the microgastroid complex of subfamilies, the monophyly of the cyclostome complex of subfamilies (= braconoids), a(More)
A higher AT content and rate of mtDNA sequence divergence was found in parasitic wasps (Apocrita) compared with nonparasitic wasps (Symphyta). The compositional bias was reflected in extreme codon bias for a cytochrome oxidase I protein coding gene fragment as well as in the types of amino acid substitutions that have occurred during the evolution of this(More)
Two species of parasitic wasp, Venturia canescens and Leptomastix dactylopii, were killed and preserved by various methods used for Hymenoptera and in mass-collecting devices. Total genomic DNA was subsequently extracted and a 524 bp fragment of the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplified by PCR. Results for these techniques were compared with that(More)
The microgastroid complex of braconid wasps is a widely recognized and biologically coherent lineage of endoparasitoids of lepidopteran larvae (caterpillars). The complex has received significant phylogenetic attention in recent years due in part to the taxons' association with mutualistic polydnaviruses, with which they compromise host immune systems. A(More)
Abstract In newly invaded communities, interspecific competition is thought to play an important role in determining the success of the invader and its impact on the native community. In southern Australia, the native Polistes humilis was the predominant social wasp prior to the arrival of the exotic Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Both species(More)