Andrew Austin

Learn More
The arrangement of tRNA genes at the junction of the cytochrome oxidase II and ATPase 8 genes was examined across a broad range of Hymenoptera. Seven distinct arrangements of tRNA genes were identified among a group of wasps that have diverged over the last 180 Myr (suborder Apocrita); many of the rearrangements represent evolutionarily independent events.(More)
A higher AT content and rate of mtDNA sequence divergence was found in parasitic wasps (Apocrita) compared with nonparasitic wasps (Symphyta). The compositional bias was reflected in extreme codon bias for a cytochrome oxidase I protein coding gene fragment as well as in the types of amino acid substitutions that have occurred during the evolution of this(More)
The microgastroid complex of braconid wasps is a widely recognized and biologically coherent lineage of endoparasitoids of lepidopteran larvae (caterpillars). The complex has received significant phylogenetic attention in recent years due in part to the taxons' association with mutualistic polydnaviruses, with which they compromise host immune systems. A(More)
Phylogenetic relationships among the major groups of hymenopteran insects were investigated by using comparative sequence information from the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. The placement of the ectoparasitic Stephanidae as the sister group to the remaining Apocrita confirmed ectoparasitism as the ground plan biology for the Apocrita. Endoparasitism evolved(More)
We investigated the putative association between the parasitic lifestyle and an accelerated rate of mt genetic divergence, compositional bias, and gene rearrangement, employing a range of parasitic and nonparasitic Diptera and Hymenoptera. Sequences were obtained for the cox1, cox2, 16S, 28S genes, the regions between the cox2 and atp8 genes, and between(More)
Abstract We characterized the organization of mitochondrial genes from a diverse range of hymenopterans. Of the 21 taxa characterized, 12 had distinct, derived organizations. Some rearrangements were consistent with the duplication–random loss mechanism, while others were not. Local inversions were relatively common, i.e., rearrangements characterized by(More)
In 1998, a unique subterranean ecosystem was discovered in numerous isolated calcrete (carbonate) aquifers in the arid Yilgarn region of Western Australia. Previous morphological and genetic analyses of a subterranean water beetle fauna suggest that calcrete aquifers are equivalent to closed island habitats that have been isolated for millions of years. We(More)
Comprehensive phylogenetic analyses utilize data from distinct sources, including nuclear, mitochondrial, and plastid molecular sequences and morphology. Such heterogeneous datasets are likely to require distinct models of analysis, given the different histories of mutational biases operating on these characters. The incongruence length difference (ILD)(More)
The nearly complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of an egg parasitoid, Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston), was sequenced using both 454 and Illumina next-generation sequencing technologies. A portion of the noncoding region remained unsequenced, possibly owing to the presence of repeats. The sequenced portion of the genome is 15,768 bp and has a high A+T content(More)
Security vulnerabilities discovered later in the development cycle are more expensive to fix than those discovered early. Therefore, software developers should strive to discover vulnerabilities as early as possible. Unfortunately, the large size of code bases and lack of developer expertise can make discovering software vulnerabilities difficult. To ease(More)