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The arrangement of tRNA genes at the junction of the cytochrome oxidase II and ATPase 8 genes was examined across a broad range of Hymenoptera. Seven distinct arrangements of tRNA genes were identified among a group of wasps that have diverged over the last 180 Myr (suborder Apocrita); many of the rearrangements represent evolutionarily independent events.(More)
Comprehensive phylogenetic analyses utilize data from distinct sources, including nuclear, mitochondrial, and plastid molecular sequences and morphology. Such heterogeneous datasets are likely to require distinct models of analysis, given the different histories of mutational biases operating on these characters. The incongruence length difference (ILD)(More)
Phylogenetic relationships among the major groups of hymenopteran insects were investigated by using comparative sequence information from the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. The placement of the ectoparasitic Stephanidae as the sister group to the remaining Apocrita confirmed ectoparasitism as the ground plan biology for the Apocrita. Endoparasitism evolved(More)
Security vulnerabilities discovered later in the development cycle are more expensive to fix than those discovered early. Therefore, software developers should strive to discover vulnerabilities as early as possible. Unfortunately, the large size of code bases and lack of developer expertise can make discovering software vulnerabilities difficult. To ease(More)
We inferred the incidence of nucleotide conversions in the COI and 16S rRNA mitochondrial genes of members of the Symphyta and basal Apocrita (Hymenoptera). Character-state reconstructions in both genes suggested that conversions between A and T (AT transversions) occurred much more frequently than any other type of change, although we cannot wholly(More)
Two species of parasitic wasp, Venturia canescens and Leptomastix dactylopii, were killed and preserved by various methods used for Hymenoptera and in mass-collecting devices. Total genomic DNA was subsequently extracted and a 524 bp fragment of the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplified by PCR. Results for these techniques were compared with that(More)
Abstract In newly invaded communities, interspecific competition is thought to play an important role in determining the success of the invader and its impact on the native community. In southern Australia, the native Polistes humilis was the predominant social wasp prior to the arrival of the exotic Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Both species(More)
Current knowledge of the evolutionary relationships amongst the wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae) is based on assessment of morphological similarity or phylogenetic analysis of a small number of taxa. In order to enhance the current understanding of lycosid relationships, phylogenies of 70 lycosid species were reconstructed by parsimony and Bayesian methods(More)
Phylogenetic relationships among the Braconidae were examined using homologous 16S rDNA gene sequence data. Analyses recovered the few well-supported relationships evident in this family from morphological analyses, viz the monophyly of the microgastroid complex of subfamilies, the monophyly of the cyclostome complex of subfamilies (= braconoids), a(More)
Terrestrial life in Antarctica has been described as some of the simplest on the planet, and mainly confined to soil microfaunal communities. Studies have suggested that the lack of diversity is due to extreme environmental conditions and thought to be driven by abiotic factors. In this study we investigated soil microfauna composition, abundance, and(More)