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ICOS is expressed on activated T cells and particularly on CXCR5+ follicular Th cells in germinal centers (GC). Its deletion leads to a profound deficiency in memory B cell formation and switched Ab response in humans. Here, we show that in ICOS-deficient patients the generation of GCs is severely disturbed, and the numbers of circulating CXCR5+CD45RO+(More)
We show the cellular distribution of immunoreactivity (IR) for brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and tyrosine kinase receptors TRKB and TRKC in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and controls at post-mortem. In both groups, nigral neurons, astrocytes, ramified and amoeboid microglia expressed all antigens. Caudate-putamen(More)
In this study, we describe the identification and in vitro functional activity of a novel multiple domain complement regulatory protein discovered based on its homology to short consensus repeat (SCR)-containing proteins of the regulators of complement activation (RCA) gene family. The rat cDNA encodes a predicted 388-kDa protein consisting of 14 N-terminal(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the safety and immunologic impact of inhibiting interferon-γ (IFNγ) with AMG 811, a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody against IFNγ, in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS Twenty-six patients with mild-to-moderate, stable SLE were administered placebo or a single dose of AMG 811, ranging from 2 mg to 180 mg(More)
BACKGROUND Inducible Costimulator (ICOS) is an important regulator of Th2 lymphocyte function and a potential immunotherapeutic target for allergy and asthma. A SNP in the ICOS 5' promoter in humans is associated with increased atopy and serum IgE in a founder population and increased ICOS surface expression and Th2 cytokine production from peripheral blood(More)
BACKGROUND Biomarker assays are often conducted on whole blood samples in the course of drug development studies. Because bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (endotoxin) contamination is known to cause spontaneous cytokine production by monocytes, contamination of blood collection tubes may interfere with biomarker assay results. METHODS Whole blood from(More)
To investigate the relationships between AMG 811 exposure, concentration changes in serum IFN-γ, and IFN-γ-induced protein 10 (CXCL10), and to identify important contributions of baseline covariates to these relationships. A mechanism based pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) model was developed. A target mediated disposition model was used to(More)
The T cell costimulatory molecule ICOS regulates Th2 effector function in allergic airway disease. Recently, several studies with ICOS(-/-) mice have also demonstrated a role for ICOS in Th2 differentiation. To determine the effects of ICOS on the early immune response, we investigated augmenting ICOS costimulation in a Th2-mediated immune response to(More)
Previous studies established that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) induces neuropeptide Y (NPY) production and accumulation of NPY-mRNA in cultures of rat fetal brain tissues. In this study, we addressed the question: Are cultured human NPY neurons regulated by BDNF and/or by another member of the neurotrophin (NT) family of growth factors? Using(More)
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