Andrew A Lackner

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Regulatory T (T(reg)) cells mediate homeostatic peripheral tolerance by suppressing autoreactive T cells. Failure of host antitumor immunity may be caused by exaggerated suppression of tumor-associated antigen-reactive lymphocytes mediated by T(reg) cells; however, definitive evidence that T(reg) cells have an immunopathological role in human cancer is(More)
Human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV and SIV) replicate optimally in activated memory CD4(+) T cells, a cell type that is abundant in the intestine. SIV infection of rhesus monkeys resulted in profound and selective depletion of CD4+ T cells in the intestine within days of infection, before any such changes in peripheral lymphoid tissues. The loss(More)
The vertebrate gut harbors a vast community of bacterial mutualists, the composition of which is modulated by the host immune system. Many gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are expected to be associated with disruptions of host-bacterial interactions, but relatively few comprehensive studies have been reported. We have used the rhesus macaque model to(More)
Better understanding of the pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) would be greatly facilitated by a relevant animal model that uses molecularly cloned virus of defined sequence to induce the disease. Such a system would also be of great value for AIDS vaccine research. An infectious molecular clone of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)(More)
Tumor-associated macrophages are a prominent component of ovarian cancer stroma and contribute to tumor progression. B7-H4 is a recently identified B7 family molecule. We show that primary ovarian tumor cells express intracellular B7-H4, whereas a fraction of tumor macrophages expresses surface B7-H4. B7-H4+ tumor macrophages, but not primary ovarian tumor(More)
Chemokines are believed to play a role in the neuropathogenesis of AIDS through their recruitment of neurotoxin-secreting, virally infected leukocytes into the CNS. Levels of chemokines are elevated in brains of patients and macaques with HIV/SIV-induced encephalitis. The chemokine receptors CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR4 are found on subpopulations of neurons in(More)
HIV-1 entry requires the cell surface expression of CD4 and either the CCR5 or CXCR4 coreceptors on host cells. Individuals homozygous for the ccr5Δ32 polymorphism do not express CCR5 and are protected from infection by CCR5-tropic (R5) virus strains. As an approach to inactivating CCR5, we introduced CCR5-specific zinc-finger nucleases into human CD4+ T(More)
Neurological dysfunction, seizures and brain atrophy occur in a broad spectrum of acute and chronic neurological diseases. In certain instances, over-stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors has been implicated. Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is an endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist synthesized from L-tryptophan via the kynurenine pathway and(More)
Central nervous system (CNS) disease is a major feature of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of macaques. To define the spectrum of CNS lesions in SIV-infected macaques and the potential associations with viral strain and disease course, we performed a retrospective analysis of necropsies on 124 macaques with SIV-induced AIDS. Histologic(More)
Perivascular cells are a heterogeneous population found in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Several terms are used for these cells, including perivascular cells, perivascular macrophages, perivascular microglia, fluorescent granular perithelial cells (FGP), or Mato cells. Different terminology used may reflect(More)