Andrew A Calder

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BACKGROUND Women with twin pregnancy are at high risk for spontaneous preterm delivery. Progesterone seems to be effective in reducing preterm birth in selected high-risk singleton pregnancies, albeit with no significant reduction in perinatal mortality and little evidence of neonatal benefit. We investigated the use of progesterone for prevention of(More)
We have examined the hypothesis that regional differences in 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH) activities occur within the human fetal membranes. Further, we reasoned that a specific reduction in PGDH in the fetal membranes at the lower uterine segment might occur with labour, providing a potential mechanism for local generation of primary(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate regulation of inflammatory mediators implicated in cervical ripening and to explore the mechanisms by which the clinically effective agent prostaglandin E2 may mediate cervical ripening. STUDY DESIGN Cervical biopsy specimens were taken from healthy, nonpregnant women undergoing a hysterectomy for a(More)
OBJECTIVE Placental 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-HSD), which converts active cortisol to inactive cortisone, has been proposed to be the mechanism guarding the fetus from the growth retarding effects of maternal glucocorticoids; however, other placental enzymes have also been implicated. Placental 11 beta-HSD is unstable in vitro, and(More)
Snoring is common in pregnancy, and snoring pregnant women have increased rates of pre-eclampsia. Patients with pre-eclampsia show upper airway narrowing during sleep. The present study aimed to compare upper airway dimensions in pregnant and nonpregnant women and in patients with pre-eclampsia. A total of 50 women in the third trimester of pregnancy and 37(More)
Cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic peptide-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-8 (IL-8), RANTES (Regulated on Activation and Normally T-cells Expressed and presumably Secreted) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) are thought to play pivotal roles in immune recognition, acceptance of the fetal allograft, maintenance of pregnancy and parturition. Their secretion and regulation(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE To examine whether snoring and sleepiness are linked in pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. PATIENTS AND METHODS We recruited 167 healthy and 82 pre-eclamptic women in the third trimester of pregnancy and 160 non-pregnant women. Subjects and their partners completed a sleep questionnaire. Height, weight, neck circumferences and blood(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of natural antimicrobials in primary cultured amnion epithelial cells and to examine their regulation by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta). STUDY DESIGN Primary amnion epithelial cells were cultured from samples that were obtained at prelabor cesarean section (n = 12) and stimulated with(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important enzymes in tissue remodelling, a key event for the development of the fetal membranes and placenta and establishing the feto-maternal interface during early pregnancy. This study has examined the secretion of the gelatinases, MMP-2 (72 kDa) and MMP-9 (92 kDa), and the endogenous tissue inhibitors of(More)
Maternal diabetes during pregnancy is associated with excess fetal growth and increased fetal insulin production. We hypothesized that insulin propeptides (proinsulin and 32-33 split proinsulin) might be more robust indicators of chronic fetal overproduction of insulin. We examined insulin-like molecules in cord blood (ILM) (insulin, proinsulin, and 32-33(More)